DEFINITIONS OF MARKETING

Marketing consists of the performance of business activities that direct flow of goods and services from product user. (American Marketing association) Marketing is the process of planning and executing the conception, processing, promotion, and distribution of ideas, goods and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational objectives. (American Marketing association)

Marketing means working with the markets, which in turn means attempting to actualize potential exchanges for the satisfying human needs and wants . Thus we return to our definition of marketing as human activity directed in satisfying need and want through exchange process (Philip Kotler).

BUSINESS ACTIVITIES
Needs Kotler (1996), has defined needs as a state of felt deprivation in a person. Wants Kotler (1996), defined wants as the form of human needs as shaped by culture and personal development. Demand Demand exist when a person is able and willing to buy.

Product Kotler (1996) has define as a product as anything that can be offered to a market for attention ,acquisition, use, or consumption that might satisfy a need and want. Exchanged Kotler (1996) has defined as exchanged as the act of obtaining a desired object from someone by offering something with marketing. Exchange core concept:
There are both parties Each party has something that may be of value to the order party. Each party is capable of communication and delivery. Each party is free to accept or reject the others party’s offer. Appropriate and desirable to deal.

Transaction A transaction with these criteria at least two things of value between two parties.

MARKETING MANAGEMENT PHILOSOPHIES
The The The The The production concept product concept selling concept marketing concept societal marketing concept

DEFINITIONS OF MARKETING MANAGEMENT
Philip Kotler & Gary Armstrong define marketing management as the art and science of choosing target markets and building profitable relationships with them.

MARKETING MANAGEMENT PHILOSOPHIES
The Production Concept Production Concept is the idea that consumers will favor products that are available and highly affordable and that the organization should therefore focus on improving production and distribution efficiency. The Product Concept Kotler (2008) has defined the product concept as the idea that consumer will favor products that offer the most quality, performance, and features and that the organization should therefore devote its energy to making continuous product improvements.

The Selling Concept Kotler has defined the selling concept, which says that the consumers will not buy enough of the organization product unless the organization undertakes substantial selling and promotion efforts.
Starting point Focus Mean s Ends

THE SELLING CONCEPT

Starting point

The Marketing Concept The marketing concept as defined by Kotler (1960) is that the key to achieving organizational goal is for the organization to determine the needs and wants of the target market and to adapt itself to delivering the desired satisfaction more effectively that its competitors.
Focus Mean s Ends

Target market

Customer needs

Profits Integrated through marketing customer satisfaction

THE MARKETING CONCEPT

The Societal Marketing Concept Kotler defined as a principle of enlightened marketing that holds that a company should make good marketing decisions by considering consumers’ wants, the company’s requirements, consumers’ long-run interests, and society’s long-run interests. Society (Human welfare)

Societal marketing concept
Consumers Company (Want satisfaction)

(Profits)

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MARKET AND SALES ORIENTATION
Sales orientation
Inward-fulfill organization goals Selling goods and services Everybody Achieve profit through maximum sales volume Through intensive promotion.

Market orientation
Outward- - fulfill wants and preferences of customers Satisfying customers needs and wants and delivering superior value Specific groups of people Achieve profit through customer satisfaction Through coordinated marketing and inter functional activities.

THE MARKETING PROCESS
Analyzing marketing opportunities & developing the organization’s mission & objectives.
Marketers need to measure demand of their products and do forecasting.

Selecting target markets. Developing the marketing strategy by developing marketing mix ( “4p’s”):
Major concepts in marketing. Consists of Product, Place, Price, &Promotion.

Managing the marketing effort.
Includes analysis, planning, implementation & control.

TRENDS IN MARKETING
Buying online (B2B, C2C, B2C, C2B) Direct selling (multi level marketing) Environmental concerns ( bio-technology products ) Corporate Social Responsibilities

THE MAJOR TRENDS AND FORCES THAT ARE CHANGING THE MARKETING LANDSCAPE & CHALLENGING MARKETING STRATEGY:
The New Digital Age The recent technology boom has created a new digital age. The explosive growth in computer, telecommunication, information, transportation, other technologies has had a major impact on the ways companies bring value to their customers. The technology boom has created exciting new ways to learn about and track customers and to create products and services tailored to individual customer needs.

Rapid Globalization In an increasingly smaller world, many marketers are now connected globally with their customers and marketing partners. Today, almost every company, large or small, is touched in some way by global competition. The Call for More Ethics and Social Responsibility As the worldwide consumerism and environmentalism movements mature, today’s marketers are being called upon to take greater responsibility for the social and environmental impact of their action. The social-responsibility and environmental movements will place even stricter demands on companies in the future.

The Growth of Not-for-Profit Previously, marketing has been most widely applied in the for-profit business sector. Recently, marketing also has become a major part of the strategies of many not-for-profit organizations, such as collages, hospitals, museums, zoos, and even churches.

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