This slide tells about basic nomenclature of airfoil, Winglets, Vortex and drag.

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This slide tells about basic nomenclature of airfoil, Winglets, Vortex and drag.

© All Rights Reserved

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Basics

UNIT-3

R that is perpendicular to

ee stream velocity, and

ag is the component of R

arallel to the free stream

elocity. If planes height is

ot changing then:

Lift = Weight

Forces on airplane at

height and speed.

CL =

L/(1/2 V2Ap)

CD =

D/(1/2 V2A)

Ap = planform area

max. proj. of wing

*

As angle of attack increases

stagnation point moves

downstream along bottom

surface, causing an

unfavorable pressure gradient

at the nose*.

generally cause streamlines over the top surface of

the wing to veer to the wing root and streamlines

over the bottom surface veer to the wing tips.

Endplates (winglets) at en

of wing reduces tip vortex

Airfoil Nomenclature

surface roughness

and uninterrupted flow of the

boundary layer is called a laminar

airfoil.

Augmentation Methods

Many theories have been developed on how a wing generates lift. The

most common one is the Longer Path Theory.

This theory describes how the shape of the aerofoil produces a pressure

difference which generates lift. As the aerofoil is designed in such a way

that its upper surface is longer than the bottom, and because the

molecules that hit the leading edge must meet again at the trailing edge,

the ones that travel on the upper surface do so with greater velocity than

the lower

Flap system

Leading edge devices

Multi element airfoils

Circulation control

Laminar flow control

winglets

Flap systems

Flap is an element attached to the aileron of

the wing section

It is always possible to reduce stall speed by

increasing wing area

distribution, increasing the camber of the

airfoil and allowing more of the lift to be

carried over the rear portion of the section

Leading Edge

Devices

Leading edge devices such as nose flaps,

Kruger flaps, and slats reduce the pressure

peak near the nose by changing the nose

camber. Slots and slats permit a new

boundary layer to start on the main wing

portion, eliminating the detrimental effect

of the initial adverse gradient.

Flaps

Winglets

Winglets

Four-Digit Series

First digit specifies maximum camber in percentage of chord

Second digit indicates position of maximum camber in tenths

NACA 2415

of chord

Last two digits provide maximum thickness of airfoil in

percentage of chord

Airfoil has maximum thickness of 15%

of chord (0.15c)

Camber of 2% (0.02c) located 40%

back from airfoil leading edge (0.4c)

High AR

Aspect Ratio

b: wingspan

S: wing area

b

AR

S

Low AR

STARFIGHTER

Very sharp leading edge on wings (razor sharp leading edges,

thickness 3.4 %)

Designed to minimize wave drag at supersonic speeds

Very poor low-speed aerodynamic performance

Such wings tend to stall at low angles of attack, CLmax is only about 1.15

Vstall (full of fuel) ~ 198 MPH

Vstall (fuel empty) ~ 152 MPH

Vstall proportional to W1/2

High AR

Aspect Ratio

b

AR

S

Low AR

AIRFOIL NOMENCLATURE

Mean Chamber Line: Set of points halfway between upper and lower

surfaces

Measured perpendicular to mean chamber line itself

Trailing Edge: Most reward point of mean chamber line

Chord Line: Straight line connecting the leading and trailing edges

Chord, c: Distance along the chord line from leading to trailing edge

Camber: Maximum distance between mean chamber line and chord line

Measured perpendicular to chord line

Pressure, p, distribution on surface

Acts normal to surface

Acts tangentially to surface

Pressure and shear are in units of force per unit area (N/m 2)

Net unbalance creates an aerodynamic force

No matter how complex the flow field, and no matter how complex the

shape of the body, the only way nature has of communicating an

aerodynamic force to a solid object or surface is through the pressure and

shear stress distributions that exist on the surface.

The pressure and shear stress distributions are the two hands of nature

that reach out and grab the body, exerting a force on the body the

aerodynamic force

Relative

Wind: Direction

of V

RESOLVING

THE

AERODYNAMIC

FORCE

Angle of Attack, Angle between relative wind (V) and chord line

Lift, L: Component of aerodynamic force perpendicular to relative wind

Drag, D: Component of aerodynamic force parallel to relative wind

components perpendicular and parallel to chord

line

Normal Force, N: Perpendicular to chord line

Axial Force, A: Parallel to chord line

L N cos A sin

D N sin A cos

For rockets, missiles, bullets, etc. N and A more

useful

Lift is obtained when F2 > F1

Misalignment of F1 and F2 creates Moments, M, which tend to rotate

airfoil/wing

Value of induced moment depends on point about which moments are taken

Moments about leading edge, MLE or quarter-chord point, c/4, M c/4

In general MLE Mc/4

F1

F2

changes

important information that an airplane designer

needs to know

Aerodynamic Center

Point about which moments essentially do not vary with

Mac=constant (independent of )

For low speed airfoils aerodynamic center is near quarterchord point

bottom surfaces of airfoil (or wing)

If pressure on top is lower than pressure on bottom surface, lift is

generated

Why is pressure lower on top surface?

Continuity (Mass Conservation)

Newtons 2nd law (Euler or Bernoulli Equation)

Lift = PA

1.

Flow velocity over top of airfoil is faster than over bottom surface

Streamtube A senses upper portion of airfoil as an obstruction

Streamtube A is squashed to smaller cross-sectional area

Mass continuity AV=constant: IF A THEN V

Streamtube A is squashed

most in nose region

(ahead of maximum thickness)

A

B

2.

As V p

1

2

p

V

constant

Incompressible: Bernoullis Equation2

Compressible: Eulers Equation dp VdV

Called Bernoulli Effect

higher pressure over bottom surface, airfoil feels

Most of lift is produced

net force

in upward direction Lift

n firsta20-30%

of wing

3.

produce lift even a flat plate can generate lift

A

B

V, , Wing Area (S), Wing Shape, , compressibility

1

2

L V Scl

2

L

L

cl

1

q

S

2

V S

2

cl f , M , Re

(called similarity parameters)

M, Re

M, Re

altitude

V, , Wing Area (S), Wing Shape, , compressibility

1

L V2 Scl

2

L

L

cl

1

V2 S q S

2

cl f1 , M , Re

1

D V2 Scd

2

D

D

cd

1

V2 S q S

2

cd f 2 , M , Re

1

V2 Sccm

2

M

L

cm

1

V2 Sc q Sc

2

cm f 3 , M , Re

M

Note on Notation:

We use lower case, cl, cd, and cm for infinite wings (airfoils)

We use upper case, CL, CD, and CM for finite wings

lift at =0

At negative airfoil

will have zero lift

attack, a

Cambered airfoils

have positive lift

when =0

Symmetric airfoils

have zero lift when

=0

of the airfoil rapidly degrades stall

understanding of viscous flows (all real flows have friction)

Called dAlemberts paradox (Must include friction in theory)

aerodynamics

Reynolds number is ratio of two forces

Inertial Forces

Viscous Forces

c is length scale (chord)

V c

Re

Reynolds number tells you when viscous forces are important and

when viscosity can be neglected

Outside B.L. flow

Inviscid (high Re)

highly viscous

(low Re)

Reynolds number also tells you about two types of viscous flows

Laminar: streamlines are smooth and regular and a fluid element moves

smoothly along a streamline

Turbulent: streamlines break up and fluid elements move in a random,

irregular, and chaotic fashion

pitch

The

The 33 axes

axes of

of motion:

motion:

roll,

roll, pitch,

pitch, yaw

yaw

roll

yaw

body) about which aerodynamic moment is

c

zero

x

Thin Airfoil Theory:

Symmetric Airfoil:

cp

aerodynamic moment is independent of angle of attack

Thin Airfoil Theory:

Symmetric Airfoil:

x A.C .

Drag

Types of Drag

Induced

Profile

Parasite

Induced Drag

Drag

Drag that

that is

is incurred

incurred as

as aa result

result of

of the

the production

production of

of lift

lift

Parallel

Parallel to

to and

and in

in the

the same

same direction

direction as

as relative

relative wind

wind

Increases

Increases with

with increased

increased angle

angle of

of attack

attack

Decreases

Decreases with

with increased

increased airspeed

airspeed

Each

Each blade

blade passes

passes through

through the

the previous

previous blades

blades disturbed

disturbed

air

air this

this condition

condition is

is most

most pronounced

pronounced at

at high

high power

power settings

settings

and

and no

no or

or low

low forward

forward airspeeds.

airspeeds.

Profile Drag

Parasitic

Parasitic drag

drag of

of the

the rotor

rotor system

system

At

At a

a constant

constant RPM,

RPM, profile

profile drag

drag is

is relatively

relatively constant

constant but

but does

does

increase

increase slightly

slightly with

with airspeed.

airspeed.

Increases

Increases rapidly

rapidly with

with very

very high

high airspeeds

airspeeds due

due to

to onset

onset of

of blade

blade stall

stall

or

or compressibility

compressibility

Profile

Profile drag

drag is

is greater

greater on

on 3,

3, 4,

4, 6,

6, etc.

etc. bladed

bladed systems

systems

Parasitic Drag

The

The resistance

resistance offered

offered by

by the

the fuselage

fuselage and

and other

other nonlifting

nonlifting

surfaces

surfaces to

to the

the flow

flow of

of air

air

Causes

Causes

Form

Form or

or shape

shape of

of the

the helicopter,

helicopter, the

the more

more streamlined

streamlined the

the helicopter,

helicopter,

the

the less

less parasitic

parasitic drag

drag

Skin

Skin friction,

friction, the

the smoother

smoother the

the skin

skin of

of the

the fuselage,

fuselage, the

the less

less parasitic

parasitic

drag

drag

Increases

Increases rapidly

rapidly with

with airspeed

airspeed

The

The summation

summation of

of all

all drag

drag forces

forces acting

acting on

on the

the helicopter

helicopter

Total

Total drag

drag is

is high

high at

at a

a hover,

hover, decreases

decreases to

to a

a minimum

minimum value

value at

at a

a

particular

particular airspeed,

airspeed, then

then starts

starts increasing

increasing with airspeed

Minimum

Minimum rate

rate of

of descent

descent for

for autorotation

autorotation

Maximum

Maximum endurance

endurance airspeed

Maximum

Maximum rate

rate of

of climb

climb airspeed

airspeed

Best

Best maneuvering

maneuvering airspeed

airspeed

The

The above

above are

are airspeeds

airspeeds that

that fall

fall within

within the lowest drag area

of

of the

the total

total drag

drag curve.

curve. Theses

Theses speeds

speeds typically

typically range

range from

from

60

60 to

to 80

80 kts

kts

Drag Forces

Torque

Torque Available

Available

Total Drag

Parasite

Drag

Drag

Drag

Profile

Drag

Forward

Forward Speed

Speed

Induced

Drag

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