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Lecture 1
-Dr. Jay Prakash Verma

Tourism and tourist are words which
are commonly heard or mentioned in
everyday life.
Tourism is concerned with pleasure,
holidays, travel and going or
arriving somewhere.
These are the motivations that make
people leave their "normal" place of
work and residence for short-term
temporary visits to other places.

Changing Facets of Tourism

From the very inception of life, travel has fascinated

Travel and tourism have been important social activities
of human beings from time immemorial.
The urge to explore new places within ones own country
or outside and seek a change of environment & experience
has been experienced from ancient times.
Tourism is one of the worlds most rapidly growing
As airports become more enjoyable places to pass
through, as travel agency services become increasingly
automated, and as tourists find it easier to get
information on places they want to visit, tourism grows.
The Internet has fuelled the growth of the travel industry
by providing on line booking facilities.
It has also provided people with the power to explore
destinations and cultures from their home personal
computers and make informed choices before finalizing
travel plans.

New Trends
The holiday makers want a good rate of return on
their investment.
The success of the hospitality industry comes from
provision of quality rooms, food, service and
Fitness has increasingly become a larger part of
everyones life. And business and leisure travellers alike
look to maintain their fitness goals while away from
Eco-tourists are a growing community and tourism
promotions have to adopt such eco-practices which
could fit this growing community.
State of the art infrastructure has been developed
along with a safe and clean image to attract conferences
and convention traffic.

Tourism today
Tourism today is much more than just
developing products.
It is more about quality, insightful
thinking and ability to have
global information about
technology, partners, contacts and
responding quickly to global and
regional trends.

Different perspectives on the

study of tourism

1. Geographical Perspective-climate, landscape or physical

attributes which draw the tourist to a destination, Ex. person from
Delhi goes to Shimla in the summer because of the cooler

2. Sociological Perspective-studies social classes, habits and

customs and the impact of tourism on society.

3. Historical Perspective-study of the factors instrumental in

the initiation of tourism to a particular destination, the order of
happenings leading to tourism development, the reasons for
happening of the occurrences in that order, beneficiaries of the
tourist activity and an untimely and premature identification of
negative effects. Ex. Taj Mahal.

4. Managerial Perspective- this approach concentrates on

management activities such as planning, research, pricing,
marketing, control etc. as vital to the operation of a tourist

5. Economic Perspective- major source of foreign exchange

earnings, a generator of personal and corporate incomes, a
creator of employment and a contributor to government earnings.

The importance of managerial and economic

perspectives to the study of tourism
Due to higher disposable incomes, increased leisure time and falling cost
of travel, the Tourism industry has shown a very high growth.
Tourism is a service industry it comprises of a number of tangible and
intangible components.
Tangible elements include transport systems - air, rail, road, water and now,
space; hospitality services - accommodation, food and beverage, tours, souvenirs;
and related services such as banking, insurance and safety and security.
The Intangible elements include: rest and relaxation, culture, escape,
adventure, new and different experiences.
Tourism industry is very fast growing.
Industry involves activities and interests of Transport Undertakings, Owners of
Tourist Sites and Attractions, Various tourist Service Providers at the tourist
destinations and Central and Local Government, etc.
Each of these serves both the resident population and the tourists and their
management must reconcile the needs of tourists with the needs of the resident
Thus, it becomes important to study tourism from the perspective of
Management, since the management of various bodies in this industry is invaded.

TOURISM Definition and Meaning

Origin of the concept of Tourism in
Sanskrit Literature. It has given us three
terms derived from the root word Atana
which means going out and accordingly
we have the terms:
Tirthatana It means going out and
visiting places of religious merit.
Paryatana - It means going out for
pleasure and knowledge.
Deshatana - It means going out of the
country primarily for economic gains.

TOURISM Definition and Meaning

Tourism is the act of travel for the
purposes of leisure, pleasure or
business, and the provision of services
for this act.
There are two important components
that make up tourism:
1. The practice of travelling for
pleasure. (I)
2. The business of providing tours and
services for persons travelling. (II)

Elements of the TWO

(Component 1)
1. Discretionary income, i.e. money to spend on nonessentials
2. Time in which to do so.
3. Infrastructure in the form of accommodation
facilities and means of transport.
4. Sufficient health and inclination to travel.
(in some countries there are legal restrictions on
travelling, especially abroad. Communist states
restrict foreign travel only to "trustworthy" citizens. )
Ex. The United States prohibits its citizens from
travelling to some countries, for example, Cuba.

Elements of the TWO

(Component 2) four basic services:
1. Travel Arrangements
2. Board and Lodging
3. Food
4. Entertainment

Tourism as per W.T.O

As Per W.T.O (World Travel Organization This was approved by United Nations
Statistical Commission in its twenty-seventh session held from 22 February to 3 March

Tourism comprises the activities of persons

travelling to and staying in places outside their
usual environment for not more than one
consecutive year for leisure, business and
other purposes.
The term usual environment is intended to exclude trips within the place of
residence, trip to the usual place of work or education and daily shopping and other
local day-to-day activities.
The threshold of twelve months is intended to exclude long-term migration.
For the distance travelled there is no consensus. It varies from at least 40 kms to
at least 160kms away from home one way for any purpose other than commuting to

Five main characteristics of Tourism

1. Tourism arises from a movement of people to, and their
stay in, various destinations.
2. There are two elements in all tourism: the journey to
the destination and the stay including activities at the
3. The journey and the stay take place outside the usual
place of residence and work, which are distinct from those
of the resident and the working population of the places,
through which the tourist travels and in which they stay.
4. The movement to destinations is of temporary, shortterm character, with the intention of returning to the
usual environment within a few days, weeks or months.
5. Destinations are visited for purposes other than
taking up permanent residence or employment
remunerated from within the places visited.

As per WTO definition, Tourism can be

classified into
1. Inbound tourism: Visits to a country by non-resident of that
country. Ex. when A American citizen, Mr. Sam comes to India
to see the Taj Mahal, he is an inbound tourist for India.
2. Outbound tourism: Visits by the residents of a country to
another country . Ex. when an Indian citizen, Mr. Ram goes to
America to see Hollywood , he is an outbound tourist for India
3. Domestic tourism: It involves travelling by the residents of
the given country within their own country . Ex. when Mr. Anil
a resident of Delhi goes to see the Taj Mahal in Agra he is a
domestic Indian Tourist.
4. Internal tourism: It comprises of domestic tourism and
inbound tourism.
5. International tourism: It comprises of inbound tourism and
outbound tourism

1.What are the two elements in all forms of Tourism?
2.What are the Intangible elements of Tourism?
3.Which Organization has given the standard definition of
4.What is Internal Tourism?
5.What is International Tourism?
Which of the following activities can be put under the term Tourism?

a) Ms. Anita goes to the nearby market to shop for groceries.

b) Mr. Randheer who stays in Mandar, goes to Shaheed Chowk to pay his phone
c) Mr. RK Sumit, a resident of Ranchi, goes to Mumbai and takes up a job there.
d) Ms Urvashi a resident of Mumbai, goes for a weekend to Goa.
e) If Mr. Kundan, working in a software company in Delhi, is transferred to
Bangalore would it be covered under travel or tourism?
f) If Mr. Kundan, who is transferred to Bangalore from Delhi, decides to go for a
weekend to see the temples in Mysore would it be travel or tourism?