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STRETCHES AND

SHEARS

Stretches

y
D

x
B

In this example ABCD has been stretched to give ABCD.


The points on the y axis have not moved, so the y axis (or x = 0)
is called the invariant line.
The perpendicular distance of each point from the invariant
line has doubled, so the stretch factor is 2.

1 Draw the image of ABCD after a stretch, stretch factor 2 with


the x axis invariant.
y
y
D
C
D

2 Draw the image of ABCD after a stretch, stretch factor 3 with


the y axis invariant.
y
y

x
B

3 Draw the image of ABCD after a stretch, stretch factor 3 with


the x axis invariant.
y
y
D
C

The following diagram shows a stretch where the invariant line is not
the x or y axis.
y

x=1

AB = 3 AB

So the stretch factor is 3.


6

The perpendicular distance of


each point from the line x = 1
has trebled.

4
2

A
2

BA
4

So the invariant line is x = 1.

B
6

10

If the scale factor is negative then the stretch is in the opposite direction.
y
B

BC = 2 BC and it has
been stretched in the
opposite direction.

So the stretch factor is 2.


6

A
6

The perpendicular distance of


each point from the y axis has
doubled.

So the invariant line is the y axis.


A
0

Shears
In a shear, all the points on an object move
parallel to a fixed line (called the invariant line).
A shear does not change the area of a shape.

To calculate the distance moved by a point use:

shear factor =

distance moved by a point


perpendicular distance of point from the invariant line

D
x

C
B

In this example ABCD has been sheared to give ABCD.


The points on the x axis have not moved, so the x axis (or y = 0)
is called the invariant line.
DD = 1

and

distance of D from the invariant line = 1

1
So, shear factor 1
1

1 Draw the image of ABCD after a shear, shear factor 2 with


the x axis invariant.
y
y

D
x

C
x

2 Draw the image of ABCD after a shear, shear factor 1 with


the y axis invariant.
y
y
C
D

D
x

B
x

3 Draw the image of ABCD after a shear, shear factor 2 with


the y axis invariant.
y
y
C
B
D
A

C
B

4 Describe fully the single transformation that takes triangle A onto triangle B.
shear

invariant line is the x axis shear factor is

8
2
4

8
4
A

5 Describe fully the single transformation that takes ABCD onto ABCD.
y

7
D

shear
invariant line is y = 2
7
shear factor is 1
7

6
4

B A

B
y=2

10

6 Describe fully the single transformation that takes ABC onto ABC.
y
8
8

shear

C
6

A
C
B

4
A

invariant line is the y axis


4 1
shear factor is
8 2

10

7 Describe fully the single transformation that takes ABCD onto ABCD.
y

3
D

C D

y=6

4
A

B A

10

shear
invariant line is y = 6
3
shear factor is 1
3

8 Describe fully the single transformation that takes ABCD onto ABCD.
7
y

x=1

shear
note: this is a negative shear

invariant line is x = 1

shear factor is

C
2

B
8

10

7
1
7