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IRON

Prepared by: Pauline Veronica R. San Diego


Gerly T. Pagayanan

IRON
A common metallic element important for the synthesis of hemoglobin.
- Proxidant: contributing to artherosclerosis, DNA damage & carcinogenesis
- Its is the fourth abundant element in the earths crust.
- Pure iron is soft, lustrous, ferromagnetic metal.
- The physical properties of iron alloys can be varied over an enormous
range of strength, hardness, toughness, corrosion resistance ( in the form
of stainless steels) and magnetic properties and ability to take and hold a
sharp edge.

DISTRIBUTION:
RBC containing hemoglobin
Ferritin & Hemosiderin as Iron storage
Body tissue containing iron in the form of myoglobin & non heme enzyme
Iron bound to transferrin

SOURCE:
Ampalaya, Internal organs
Enhance iron absorption: Ascorbic acid
70-75% of iron is incorporated in transferrin
25% complex to a protein in apoferritin

TOXICITY
Iron overload is frequently associated in hereditary hemochromatosis
(HH)
HH is a single gene homozygous recessive disorder leading to
abnormality in high Fe absorption, culminating in Fe overload.
Secondary Fe overload may result in from excessive dietary, medicinal, or
transfusional Fe intake in Fe due to metabolic dysfunction s

REFERENCE VALUE:
Male- 65-170 ug/dL
Female- 50- 170 ug/dL

INCREASE
Iron poisioning, hemochromatosis, viral hepatitis , non iron deficiency
anemia -> Sideroblastic anemia, pernicious anemia

DECREASE
IDA, malnutrition, malignancy

DEFIENCY
Iron deficiency about 15% of the worldwide population. Those with a
higher than average risk of iron deficiency anemia include pregnant
women, young children, adolescents, and women of reproductive age.
Increased blood loss, decrease dietary iron intake, or ecreased release
from ferritin may result in iron deficiency. Reduction in iron stores usually
preceeds both a reduction in circulating iron and anemia as demonstrated
by a decreased red blood cell count, mean corpuscular hemoglobin
concentration and microcytic RBCs.

TOTAL IRON BINDING CAPACITY


(TIBC)
Refers to the amount of Fe that could be bound by saturating transferrin
and other minor iron binding protein
INCREASE:
-IDA, hemorrhage, destruction of liver cell
DECREASE:
-non IDA anemia, decrease synthesis of transferrin
REFERENCE VALUE: 250-450 ug/dL

UNBOUND IRON BINDING


CAPACITY (UIBC)
measure of the reserve iron binding capacity of the transferrin
UIBC= TIBC- serum iron
TIBC= UIBC + serum iron

PERCENT SATURATION/
TRANSFERRIN SATURATION
An index of Fe storage
Ration of iron to TIBC
INCREASE:
-iron overdose, hemochromatosis, sideroblastic anemia, hemolytic anemia
DECREASE:
-IDA, malignancy, chronic infection
REFERENCE VALUE: 20-55%

% saturation formula:

SERUM TRANSFERRIN
Principal iron transparent protein
FORMULA: TIBC(ug/dL) 0.70 =mg/dL
REFERENCE VALUE: 200- 400 mg/dL