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Chapter 1

Food Choices and


Sensory Characteristics

What Affects Your Meal


Pattern and Pattern of
Eating?

Breakfast

Typical breakfast foods


Why you choose those foods
Time you eat breakfast
Where to you generally eat breakfast?
Do you eat alone or with someone?

Lunch and supper

Factors Affecting Patterns


of Eating

Taste: Foods must


be palatable or
have appetite
appeal.
Family & Friends:
The family
structure and
interactions
influence the
development of our

Factors Affecting Patterns of


Eating in the 21st Century
Time restraints.
Seventy percent of women with children under 18 work
outside the home.
Family extracurricular activities.
Meals purchased outside the home account for 49% of
total food expenditures.
Regular shared meals are declining. However, 80% of the
time, Americans eat dinner at home.

Factors Affecting Patterns of


Eating
Cultural Background: The culture in which we
develop influences our food habits.
Religious Beliefs: Some religions have food laws
which permit or forbid the consumption of
certain foods; Kashruth are the _____dietary laws
observed by those of the Jewish faith. Halal are
the ______dietary laws.

http://www.internationalfoodshop.com/

Religious/Cultural
Beliefs

Christians: No specific
Catholics: No meat on Friday especially
during Lent

Judaism: _____________(Parva)
Kashruth: Dietary laws

No blood-certain way to butcher animals


Milk and meat kept separate
Pork and shellfish prohibited
Apply to ingredients used in processed foods

Religious/Cultural
Beliefs
Islam: Set food laws for __________
Pork and all their by-products
Intoxicants-Alcohol,
Birds of prey and land animals without ears
(snakes)
Animals killed in a manner that all blood is
drained

Hinduism
Usually vegetarian
No cows (sacred) and recommend no pork
Fish or meat must be sanctified

Religious/Cultural
Beliefs
Vegetarianism
In US about 4% are vegetarian
Vegan
Lacto-ovo
Pesco

Buddhists-(a way of living)


advocate vegetarianism out of kindness

Seventh-Day Adventist
Recommend vegetarianism
No alcohol or other intoxicants (advocate no
caffeine)
Over all similar to Dietary Guidelines

Nutrition and Health

The National Health and Nutrition


Examination Survey (NHANES)
http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes.htm
Dietary Guidelines for Americans
http://www.health.gov/dietaryguideline
s/dga2010/DietaryGuidelines2010.pdf
http://www.choosemyplate.gov/

Healthy Diet

Health concerns Health People 2020,


National Health Promotion and Disease
Prevention objectives, offers
guidelines to
help Americans
live healthier lives.

http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/Abo
ut-Healthy-People

Factors Affecting Patterns


of Eating
Cost low income families ($10,000-14,999) spend 25%
of their income on food.
Average household family 9%
Food insecurity: In 2012, 14.5% of US households
http://www.ers.usda.gov/topics/food-nutrition-assistance/
food-security-in-the-us/definitions-of-food-security.aspx
#.VAB7SvldX0d

The word "hunger, refers to a


potential consequence of food
insecurity that, because of prolonged,
involuntary lack of food, results in
discomfort, illness, weakness, or pain
that goes beyond the usual uneasy
sensation."

Technological
Development
Aseptic packaging
Irradiation
Sous vide
Biotechnology
Genetic engineering

http://
landing.expo2015.org/en/global-nutrition-event.html?gclid
=CPuK9PrNrcYCFYdFaQodi0kCRQ

Sensory Characteristics of
Food
Appearance
Taste and Taste buds
Sweet, Sour, Bitter, Salty, Umami (savory)
Temperature (Compare)
Temperature has an impact on flavor perception
Odor
Flavor: Blending of taste and odor

Texture

Tactile, mouthfeel
Tingle with carbonated beverages

Terms: smoothness, stickiness,


graininess, brittleness, fibrous, lumpy,
tingling, dry, moist, solid, fluid, thick,
thin, rough, smooth, course, fine, tough,
tender, hard, soft, compact, porous
Generally dislike: tough, soggy,
crumbly, lumpy, watery, slimy (Okra)

Sensory Characteristics of
Food
______: Hydrocyl (-OH) group
______: Ion compounds of salt
______: Hydrogen ions (H+) found in acids
______: Number of compounds (ex: coffee)
Theobromine is the primary alkaloid
found in cocoa and chocolate which is
a natural source of theobromine.
Umami: Amino acids, MSG

Flavors and the tongue

All tastes can be perceived equally well


everywhere on the tongue. It use to be
thought that there were specific zones
for sweet, sour, salty and bitter. But this
has been proven to be incorrect.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhe
alth/PMH0033701/

Types of Flavors

Precursors: non-flavors activated by


cooking
Raw meat vs cooked meat
Yeast Fermentation (bread)
Enzymatic Reactions (cheese flavors)
Synthetic Compounds (added flavors)
Example: 200 compounds to make banana
flavor

Sensory Analysis

To judge or evaluate food by the senses:


Sight (appearance)
Smell (aroma)
Touch (texture)
Taste (flavor)
Hearing (sounds)

Formal Sensory Evaluation


Trained Sensory Panels
Focus Groups
Provides information beyond
like/dislike

Compare opinions of
evaluators
Generate data to better understand
the perceived food quality

Forms of Sensory
Evaluation
Hedonic Scale
Like extremely well to dislike extremely
The Hedonic Scale for children uses happy and
sad faces

Objective Evaluation of
Food
Laboratory Instruments
Measure:
Viscosity (thickness of consistency)
Firmness of gel
Color
Compressibility (bread for
example)
Shear (tenderness of meat)