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Subject: Principles of Leadership

Scope of Presentation:
A. Introduction
B. Definitions
C. Presentation of contents:
1. Leadership versus Management
2. Leadership Traits
3. Functions of Leadership
4. 4 seats of Variables
5. Leadership Principles of C. PNP
6. The Five (5) Styles of Leadership
7. Who is a Leader
8. What is the Personality of a leader
Prepared by:
Police Senior Superintendent (DSC) (B.S. CH.E)
Forensic Chemical Officer

A. Introduction:
The Phenomenon of leadership has been investigated by
social scientists for a number of years. Most of the studies
have directed attention to the leaders characteristics and
behavior. In recent years, however, researchers have
become interested in the group and other organizational
influences that affect the leader and his success. Good
leadership involves responsibility to the welfare of the
group, which means that some people will get angry at his
actions and decision. It is inevitable, if you are honorable.
Trying to get everyone to like you is a sign of mediocrity
you will avoid the tough decisions, you will avoid
confronting the people who need to be confronted, and you
will avoid offering differential rewards based on differential
performance because some people might get upset.

Corollary to this, if the leader is not being criticized, then

hes probably not doing much. Leaders must realized that they
cannot make everyone happy all the time. At times, they must
be tough skinned to accept and face even the harshest of
criticism and yet, maintain their composure in the presence of
their adversaries.
Leaders do not command excellence, they build excellence,
to reach excellence you must be first a leader of good
Character develops over time. Many think that much of a
person's character is formed early in life. However, we do not
know exactly how much or how early character develops. But, it
is safe to claim that character does not change quickly.

A person's observable behavior is an indication of his

character. This behavior can be strong or weak, good or bad. A
person with strong character shows drive, energy, determination,
self-discipline, willpower, and nerve. He sees what he wants and
goes after it. He attracts followers. On the other hand, a person
with weak character shows none of these traits. He does not
know what he wants. His traits are disorganized, he vacillates
and is inconsistent. He will attract no followers.
A strong person can be good or bad. A gang leader is an
example of a strong person with a bad character, while an
outstanding community leader is one with both strong and good
characteristics. An organization needs leaders with both strong
and good characteristics, people who will guide them to the
future and show that they can be trusted.
Leadership is not a position, it is a practice. Wearing insignias
does not qualify an officer as a leader. Having an important title
does not make one a leader. Being the leader means doing the
right thing, it means being effective while managers are people
who do things right it means being efficient .

Historically, attempts to explain the basis for successful

leadership have focus on the characteristics of the leader
himself. This is of course, the logical place to begin searching
for the factors that affect leadership success. Over the years,
the great man approach, the treat approach, and the
behavioral approach have been developed, as ways of studying
the leader. Of these, the great man approach is at least
sophisticated since it suggests that the successful manager is
an innately competent leader who is born rather that made,
and that the basis for his success cannot really be an covered
by studying him on his methods.

B. Definitions:
Leadership The process of influence on a group, in a
particular situation, at a given point in time, and in a specific
set of circumstances that stimulate people to strive willingly to
attain organizational objectives, giving them the experience to
attain the common objectives, and satisfaction with the type of
leadership provided.
- The knack of getting people to follow you and
do willingly the things you want them to do.
- The process of persuasion and example by
which an individual induces a group to take action that is in
accordance with the leaders purpose, or the shared purpose of
- The ability to make followers want to achieve
high goals, rather than simply boss people around.

- The art of accomplishing more than what the science

of management thinks possible. Leaders make people feel
good about themselves. Where managers push, leaders pull.
- Is influence, it is the art or process of influencing
people so that they will strive willingly and enthusiastically
toward the achievement of group goals.
- Is the managerial activity that maximizes productivity,
stimulates creative problem solving, and promotes morale and

Command - the authority that a person in the police service

lawfully exercises over subordinates by virtue of his rank and
assignment or position.

Supervision the act or function of supervising or

overseeing; superintendence.

Management the process of designing and maintaining

an environment in which individuals, working together in
groups, accomplish efficiently selected aims.

Power is the ability or capacity to influence others to do

something they would not otherwise do or to influence the

behavior of others.
- Is the ability to command or apply force.
- Is the extent to which an individual is able to influence
others so that they respond to orders.

Authority Is the right to perform or command or issue

directives and expend resources, this exists in the formal

organization because it steams from the position created by
the organization.

C. Presentation of Contents:
1. Leadership versus Management
Warren Bennis, a leadership guru, differentiates leader
from manager by saying a leader is one who do the right
thing while the manager do things right.
The manager has a short-range view; the leader has a long
range perspective.
The manager has his eye always on the bottom line; the
leader has his eye on the horizon.
Skillfully applies scientific management and artful
leadership to accomplish assignments.
Management: A Science and an Art
Management is a science. Knowledge about it has been

organized and systematized through the application of the

scientific method. However, it is not as exact as the physical
sciences like physics and chemistry for management deals
with the complex phenomena about which little is known the
structure and behavior of groups of people.
If an art is defined as the know-how to achieve a desired
result, then management is an art, because it uses organized
body of knowledge and applies it in the light of environmental
realities to achieve predetermined objectives. Management is
an art because managers used judgment based on common
sense and experience rather than merely following a prescribe
set of management rules. Management is an art because the
skill, and the experiential character of the manager will always
be a major factors in their performance and the performance of
their organization.

2. Leadership Traits:
Honest - Display sincerity, integrity, and candor in all your
actions. Deceptive behavior will not inspire trust.
Competent - Base your actions on reason and moral
principles. Do not make decisions based on childlike emotional
desires or feelings.
Forward-looking - Set goals and have a vision of the
future. The vision must be owned throughout the organization.
Effective leaders envision what they want and how to get it.
They habitually pick priorities stemming from their basic values.

Inspiring - Display confidence in all that you do. By showing

endurance in mental, physical, and spiritual stamina, you will
inspire others to reach for new heights. Take charge when
Intelligent - Read, study, and seek challenging

Fair-minded - Show fair treatment to all people. Prejudice

is the enemy of justice. Display empathy by being sensitive to
the feelings, values, interests, and well-being of others.
Broad-minded - Seek out diversity.
Courageous - Have the perseverance to accomplish a
goal, regardless of the seemingly insurmountable obstacles.
Display a confident calmness when under stress.

Straightforward - Use sound judgment to make a good

decisions at the right time.
Imaginative - Make timely and appropriate changes in
your thinking, plans, and methods. Show creativity by
thinking of new and better goals, ideas, and solutions to
problems. Be innovative!

Bearing General appearance, carriage, deportment and


Courage Mental quality that recognizes fear, of danger, or

criticism, but enables a person to proceed in the face of it with

calmness and fairness.

Decisiveness Be able to make decisions promptly and to

state them in a clear, forceful manner.

Dependability Certainty of proper performance of


Endurance Mental and physical stamina measured by the

ability to withstand pain, fatigue, stress, and hardship; is skin
to courage.

Enthusiasm Display of sincere interest and zeal in the

performance of duties.

Initiative Taking positive action in the absence of orders.

Integrity uprightness and soundness of moral principles,

the quality truthfulness and honesty.

Judgment Ability to logically weight facts and possible

solutions on which to base sound solutions.

Justice Giving of rewards and punishments according to

the merits of the case in question.

Knowledge Keeps himself abreast of current

developments in his work/specialty, command policies and his
local and global communities.

Loyalty Quality of faithfulness to country, the

organization, seniors, subordinates, and peers.

Tact Ability to deal with others in respectful manner.

Unselfishness Avoids providing for his own comfort and
personal advancement at the expense of others.

3. Functions of Leadership
Renders Service A leader uses his superior knowledge
of how to achieve organizational objectives in order to serve,
not to be served.

Executes It is the duty of the leader as a servant to

executive all laws, policies, rules, etc, that will help the
organization achieve mutually-beneficial goals.

Plans It is the duty of the leader to determine the immediate

steps and the long-range planning of the future steps to the

Other Functions Policy-maker an expert, external

group representative, controller of internal relations, giver of

rewards and punishments, arbitrator and mediator, examplesetter, symbol of the group, substitute for individual
responsibility, ideology-builder, father figure, confidant and

4. Four (4) seats of Variables:


Personality of the manager as a leader.

Personality of the people in the organization.
Situation in which the leadership is exercised.
Organizational factors.

5. Leadership Principles of C, PNP


Know yourself and seek self improvement.

Be technically and tactically proficient.
Seek responsibility, and take responsibility for your actions.
Make sound and timely decisions.
Set the example.
Know your men and look out for their welfare.

7. Keep your men informed.

8. Develop a sense of responsibility in your subordinates.
9. Ensure that the task is understood, supervised, and
10. Train your men as a team.
11. Employ your unit in accordance with its capabilities.

6. The Five (5) Styles of Leadership

1. The Autocratic Leader has authority from some source such
as his position, knowledge, strength, or power to reward and
punish, and he uses this authority as his principal, or only,
method of getting things done. He is frankly authoritarian,
knows what he wants done, and how, Tells people what their
work assignments are, and demands unquestioning obedience.
The autocrat ranges from tough to paternalistic
depending on how much he stresses, as motivation, threat and

punishment in the former case or rewards in the latter. The

tough autocrat demands and gets compliance, or else. The
paternalistic autocrat demands and expects compliance but
mainly on a father-knows-best relationship, implying
personal dependence, rewards, and security. The autocrat
permits people little or no freedom.
2. The Bureaucratic Leader like the autocrat, the bureaucrat
tells people what to do, and how, but the basis for his orders
is almost exclusively the organizations policies, procedures
and rules. For the bureaucrat, these rules are absolute. He
manages entirely by the book and no exceptions are
permitted. He treats rules and administers their force upon
people as a judge might treat laws, including their every
technicality. Like the autocrat, the bureaucrat permits people
little or no freedom.
3. The Diplomatic Leader although he has the same clear
authority as the autocrat, the diplomat prefers to sell people

and operate, as much as possible, by persuasion and broadscale individual motivation of people. He will revert if
necessary to the autocratic style, but prefers to avoid this.
Some term him a sell-type leader who uses a large variety
and degree of persuasion tactics, ranging from simple
explanation of the reasons for an order to full scale bargaining
with people. He will usually relate his organizational goals to
the personal individual needs and aspirations of his people.
Such a leader retains his authority in that he knows and will
insist on a particular course of action, but he provides somelimited-freedom to his people in that he permits them to react,
question, raise objections, discuss, and even argue their side
of the issue.
4. The Participative Leader openly invites his people to
participate or share decisions, policy-making, and operation
methods. He is either a democratic or a consultative leader.

The democratic leader joins his group and makes it clear,

in advance, that he will abide by the groups decision whether
arrived at by consensus or majority vote. The consultative
leader consults his people and invites frank involvement,
discussions, pros and cons argument, and recommendations
from the group, but makes it clear that he alone is accountable
and reserves the final decision to himself. In both forms of the
participative style of leadership, people are given a high degree
of freedom.
5. The Free-Rein leader does not literally abandon all controls. He
sets a goal for his subordinate as well as parameters such as
policies, deadlines, and budget and then drops the reins and
sets his subordinate free to operate without further direction or
control, unless the subordinate himself requested.

7. Who is a Leader:
1. If you do not know or do not understand, Ask ? Do not
pretend you know everything.
2. If a thing needs to be done and you do not see any one
doing it, there are only two things you have to do;
a. Do it yourself. or
b. Ask the proper person who suppose to do it.
3. If, after speaking your piece, a decision is made which does
not conform to your wish, accept it and move on.
4. When you assure your responsibility, that means you have
to do your homework.
5. Do not make agreements if you think you cannot keep them.
6. Treat others you would like them to become and you would
like yourself to be treated.
7. In conflict management, remember that there are always
three side: your side , this side and the right side.

8. Tell the truth even if others cannot and will not.

9. It is alright to change your mind with a new insight, but let
others know when you do.
10. What you do speaks louder than what you say.
11. We all make mistakes, when this happens to your
members, remember it will also happen to you.
12. Do not be quick in blaming others and abandoning your

8. What is the personality of a Leader

It is a leaders manner of:
- walking
- talking
- dressing up
- including his/her: attitude, interests, ways of reaching to
other people.

It is not the critic who counts; not the man who

points out how the strong man stumbled, or where
the doer of deeds could have done them better. The
credit belongs to the man who is actually in the
arena, whose face is marred by dust and sweat and
blood; who strives valiantly; who errs and comes
short again and again; who knows the great
enthusiasms, the great devotions; who spends
himself in a worthy cause; who, at the best, knows in
the end the triumph of high achievement, and who,
at the worst, if he fails, at least fails while daring
greatly, so that his place shall never be with those
timid souls who know neither victory or defeat."
Theodore Roosevelt, American President