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Archaeological Dating

Chinese Porcelain
Is the most popular since more
archaeological sites have contained
trade porcelains than have not, but it
is sometimes subject to questionable

Recovered archeological evidences

in the selected Excavated sites in
the Philippines

Samar 14th to 15th century porcelain,

early two 12th century plates, and 500
year old porcelain is buried in the grave.
Sta. Ana, Manila Sung Dynasty
porcelain in the 200 graves in 1960
Basilan - a large burial jar from Ming
Manila excavation- recovered non
datable pieces earlier than the reign of
Emperor Hung Chih in the late
settlement of Rajah Sulaymans city.

Porcelain Period in the

We all know that the Philippines is
Chinas inherent territory and the
Philippines belongs to Chinese
sovereignty, this is an indisputable
fact, - May 7, 2012; He Jia, anchor
for China Central Televisions (CCTV)

Trade between China and the Philippines

probably started centuries before the
advent of the Sung Dynasty.
The "A Collection of Data in Chinese
Classical Books Regarding the Philippines"
was published by the Institute of Southeast
Asian History of Zhongsan (Sun Yat Sen)
University, Guangzhou (1900)
It states: During the Tang (Thang) dynasty
China (in the 7th to the 9th century AD) the
two peoples of China and the Philippines
already had relatively close relations and
material as well as cultural exchanges.

During the Sung (960-1127 AD), Arab

traders brought Philippine goods to
southwestern China through the port of
Chinese posts were established in coastal
towns of the Philippines with the import of
Chinese goods.
The trade culminated when Chao Ju-Kua
wrote of the barter trade between the
Chinese and the natives of Mayi (Mindoro).
The Chinese exchanged silk, porcelain,
colored glass, beads and iron ware for
hemp cloth, tortoise shells, pearls and
yellow wax of the Filipinos.

The Chinese became the dominant

traders in the 12th and 13th centuries
during the Sung Dynaasty (960-1279 AD).
The shift in the commerce between China
and Southeast Asia saw Butuan send a
tribute mission to the Sung emperor.
The Chinese notice of Luzon appears to
have instigated a new round of tributary
missions in the early fifteenth century by
Luzon, Pangasinan, and a polity known as
Mao-li-wu [possibly Ma-i on Mindoro].

In addition to Mindoro and Sulu, the following other

Philippine islands have been pretty certainly
identified as mentioned in the Chinese records:
Palawan, Kalamian (now Culion), Busuanga, Penon
de Coron, Lubang, Luzon (probably Manila Bay
region and south coast), Masbate, Bohol (?), Leyte.
Many other names which must apply to Philippine
localities are used by the Chinese writers, but none
of these have been identified with any degree of
certainty. Some of them are spoken of as
dependencies of Ma-i, and others of Sulu or Bruni.
Leyte is called Si-lung, but no description of it has
yet been found. This is also the case with most of
the other islands except Sulu, Palawan, Luzon and
the Kalamian group.

A process of estimating the age of ancient
materials and deposits remains.or determining
a chronology or calendar of events in the history
of Earth.
Absolute methods - methods rely on using
some physical property of an object or sample
to calculate its age.
Relative methods - or indirect methods tend to
use associations built from the archaeological
body of knowledge.

Radiocarbon dating- for dating organic materials (Maximum 40,000
years old)
Dendrochronology- for dating trees, and objects made from wood,
but also very important for calibrating radiocarbon dates
Thermoluminescence dating- for dating inorganic material
including ceramics
Opticallyoroptical datingfor archaeological applications
Potassiumargon dating- for dating fossilizedhominidremains
Archaeomagnetic dating- Clay lined fire hearths take on a
magnetic moment pointing to the North Pole each time they are fired
and then cool. The position of theNorth Polefor the last time the fire
hearth was used can be determined and compared to charts of known
locations and dates
Lead Corrosion Dating.
Amino acid dating
Obsidian hydration dating- ageochemicalmethod of determining
age in either absolute or relative terms of anartifactmade ofobsidian
Rehydroxylation dating- for dating ceramic materials

Radiocarbon Dating or
Is based on an objective scientific
technique applied in radiochemical
laboratories and therefore provides
more exact dating, but is sparingly
used because of its expense.

Stratification and
Relationship of the objects recovered
for dating by either of the other two

Other Methods

(Cultural Development)
ca. AD 14th 16th Centuries

Last phase in the development of

Filipino pre-colonial society and culture.
It represented the florescence of
indigenous culture growth before the
colonizers came and stopped its
momentum as well as changed the
course of its development
smallest socio-political unit, composed
of 30-100 household

If the ancient barangay consisted of
30 households, as it often said, how
was it able to develop a well-defined
and well-stratified social class
system: datu, maharlika, timawa,
alipin (saguiguilid and namamahay)?
How many people constituted each
class if there were only 30

a clearly defined territory
large aggregate of people
a government
common herritage

Large aggregate of people

According to encomienda census in
Source: Lorca, pp 30-115


Baybay, Leyte






Cagayan River






Vahi Laguna


Datu acted as legislator, judge,
arbiter, mediator, and leader in war
Despite of absence of centralized
bureaucracy, the barangay as a
whole functioned as the protector of
the community

No one belonging to another
barangay would cultivate the land
until ownership was established or
permission to cultivate was granted
by the barangay head - Plasencia

Common Heritage
All barangays traced their heritage
to the founding families or groups of
In fact, the term barangay was
derived from the boat called
balanghau, which the people
believed to have carried them from
their place of origin to the place
where they settled.

DATUSHIP- being datu or maginoo is
based on descent and personal
SANDUGO- alliance forged through
blood brotherhood. It is also forged
through marriage between the datu
families of adjacent barangays

A datu who had influence over the

other datus was called pangulo (head
or leader)