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Security and safety are the second level of

the hierarchy of human needs according to
Abraham Maslow. Both are on top of the
physiological needs, which include air, food
shelter, excretion among others. The need
for security and safety encompasses the
body, health, family, resources and

What is Security?

Is a state or condition of being secured;

there is freedom from fear, harm, danger,
loss, destruction, or damages.

Difference between security

guard and security guard force

Security guard is a person who offers or

renders personal service to watch or secure
either a residence or business establishment or
both for hire or compensation

Security guard force is a group of force

selected men trained or grouped into functional
unit for the purpose of protecting operational
processes from those disruptions which would
impede efficiency or halt operation at a particular
plant, facility, installation or special activity



Refers to the natural, physical, social,
political and industry that surround the
This is classified as a base resource as it
provides the opportunity and inspiration for
the creation of an organization.


Refers to information or data about employees,

policies, plans, projects, designs, patterns,
business application software, production,
sales and other business transaction data.
It is the product of an idea created or
perceived by human intelligence and
imagination that is expressed in writing or
orally. It is transmitted from the creator to
another person who has the skill to concretize
these ideas into products or services.



This focus with the physical measures
adopted to prevent unauthorized access to
equipment, facilities, material and
documents and to safeguard them against
espionage, sabotage, damage, loss and
These measures consist of barriers and
devices that would detect, impede and
prevent unauthorized access to equipment.

The type of access necessary will depend
upon a number of a variable factors and
therefore may be achieved in a number of
There is no impenetrable barrier.
Defense-in depth is barriers after barriers
Delay is provided against surreptitious
(secret) and non-surreptitious entry.
Each installation is different



Can be defined as those measures taken by

an installation or unit to protect itself
against sabotage, espionage, or subversion
and at the same time provide freedom of
action in order to provide the installation of
the unit with the necessary flexibility to
accomplish its mission.

The aspects of the protective security

can be seen with application of the
Industry security - a type of security to business
groups engaged in industries like manufacturing,
assembling, research and development, processing,
warehousing and even agriculture. It may also mean
the business of providing security.
Hotel security a type of security applied to hotels
where its properties are protected from pilferage, loss,
damage and function in the hotel restaurant are not
disturbed and troubled by outsiders or the guest
themselves. This type of security employs hose
detectives, uniforms, guard supervisor and insures that
the hotel guest and their personal effects are

The aspects of the protective security

can be seen with application of the

Bank security this type of security is

concern with the bank operations. Its main
objectives are the protection of bank cash
assets, its personnel and clientele. Security
personnel are trained to safeguard bank and
assets while in the storage.
VIP security a type of security applied for
the protection of top-ranking officials of the
government or private entity, visiting persons
of illustrious standing and foreign dignitaries.

The aspects of the protective security

can be seen with application of the
School security a type of security that is concern
with the protection of students, faculty member
and school properties. Security personnel are
trained to protect the school property from theft,
vandals handling campus riot and detecting the
use of intoxicated drugs and alcohol by the
Supermarket or mails security a type of security
which is concern with the protection of the stores,
warehouses, storage, its immediate premises and
properties as well as the supermarket personnel
and customers.


A barrier can be defined as any structures

or physical device capable of restricting,
deterring, delaying illegal access to an

Generally, barriers are use for

the following purposes:
Defined the physical limits of an area
Create physical and psychological deterrent
to unauthorized entry
Prevent penetrations there in or delay
intrusion, thus, facilitating apprehension of
Assist in more efficient and economical
employment of guards
Facilitate and improve the control and
vehicular traffic.

Different types of barriers

Natural barriers includes bodies of water, mountains,

marshes, ravines, deserts or other terrain that are difficult to
Structural barriers these are the futures constructed by man
regardless of their original intent that tends to delay the
Human barriers persons being used in providing a guarding
system or by the nature of their employment and location,
fulfill security functions.
Animal barriers animals are used in partially providing a
guard system. Dogs are usually trained and utilized to serve
as guard dogs.
Energy barriers it is the employment of mechanical,
electrical, electronic energy imposes deterrent to entry by the
potential intruder or to provide warning to guard personnel.

What is Restricted Area?

Any area in which personnel or vehicles are

controlled for reasons of security.

Importance of Restricted Area

Restricted area is established to provide
security for any installation or facilities and
to promote efficiency of security operations
and economy in the use of security
Restricted area was established to permit
different degrees of security within the
same installation or facilities.

Types of Restricted Area

Exclusion area restricted area contains
security interest to TOP SECRET matters,
and which requires the highest degree of
Limited area control restricted area in
which a lesser degree of security is required
than in an exclusion area but security
interest would be comprised by uncontrolled

What is Perimeter Security?

It is the protection of the installations inner

and the immediate vicinity.

Purpose of the Perimeter


The main purpose of perimeter barriers is to

deny or impede access or exit of
unauthorized person.

Type of Fences

Solid Fence constructed such away the

visual access through the fences is denied

Full-view Fence constructed in such away

that visual access is permitted through the

Types of Full-view Fences

Chain link fence
Barbed wire fence
Concentrating wire fence

Different types of Perimeter

Barrier Openings
Gates and Doors
Utilities and openings

What is Protective Lighting?

The idea that lighting can provide protection

for people and facilities especially during

Types of protective lighting

Continuous lighting
Standby lighting
Movable or portable lighting
Emergency lighting

General Types of Lighting

Incandescent lamp
Mercury vapor lamp
Metal halide
High-pressure sodium vapor

What is Protective Alarm?

Protective alarms are one of the important

barriers in security.

Functions of Protective Alarm

Its function is to alert the security personnel

for any attempt intrusion into a protected
area, building or compound.

Three basic parts of Alarm

Sensor or trigger device it emits the aural
or visual or both
Transmission line a circuit which transmit
the message to the signaling apparatus
Enunciator it is the signaling system that
activates the alarm

Types of Protective Alarm

Central station
Proprietary system
Local alarm
Auxiliary alarm

Kinds of Alarms
Audio detection device
Vibration detection device
Metallic foil or wire
Laser beam alarm

What is Protective Lock and Key


It is one of the most widely used physical

security devices in the asset protection
program of installation

What is Lock?

A lock is defined as mechanical, electrical,

hydraulic or electronic devices. Designated
to prevent entry to a building, room,
container or hiding places

Types of Locks
Mechanical lock
It uses some sort of arrangement of internal
physical barriers(wards tumblers) which prevent
the lock from operating unless they are properly
aligned . The key is the device used to align these
internal barriers so that the lock may be operated.
A portable and detachable lock having a sliding
hasp which passes through a staple ring and is
then made fasten or secure

Types of Locks
Combination lock
Instead of using the key align the tumblers the
combination mechanism uses numbers, letters or the
other symbols as reference point which enables an
operator to align them manually.
Code-operator lock
A type of lock that can open by pressing a series of
number in proper sequence.
Electrical Lock
A type of lock that can be opened and closed remotely by
electrical means.
Card Operated Lock
A type of lock operated by a coded card.

Types of Keys
Change key
A specific key which operate the lock and has particularly
combination of cuts which match the arrangement of the
tumbler in the lock.
Sub-master key
A key that will open all the lock within a particularly area or
grouping in a given facility.
Grand master key
A key that will open everything in a system two or more
master key groups.
Key control
Once an effective key control has been installed, positively
control of all keys must be gained and maintained. This can
be accomplished only if it is establish in conjunction with the
installation of new locking devices.

The following methods can be

used to maintained effective
key control:

Key cabinet
A well-contracted cabinet will have to e
produced. The cabinet will have to of
sufficient size to hold the original key to
every lock in the system. It should be
secured at all times.
Key record
Some administrative means must be set up
to record code numbers and indicates to
whom keys to specific locks have been


Periodic inventories will have to e made of

all duplicates and originals keys in the
hands of employee whom they have been

The following methods can be

used to maintain effective key
In addition to periodic inventory, an
unannounced audit should be made af all
keys control records and procedures be a
member of management.
Daily Report
A daily report should be made to the person
responsible for a key control from the
personnel department indicating all persons
who have left or will be leaving the company
in the event that the key has been issued,

Principles of key controls

Key and lock should be change at least once a year or every 12
Master key should not be mark identifying them as master key.
Key should not be marked or should not identify doors of locks they
Master key should be in minimum .
When the key is lost , the circumstances should be investigated and
lock should be immediately change.
A key depositor for securing keys during non-working should be
centrally located, locked and kept under supervision of the security
Key issued in daily basis, or this issued for a specific on time purpose
, should be accounted daily .
Key should be counted and signed for by security supervisor at the
beginning of each working day .
When the key is lost, the circumstances should be investigated and
set in writing . In some instance .if the lost key provides access to
sensitive area , lock should be change.
All keys should be inspected periodically.



Art. 304 (revised penal code) possession of picklocks or

similar tools .
Any person who shall without lawful cause have in
possession of picklocks or similar tools especially to the
commission of the crime robbery , shall be punishable by
arrest to mayor in its minimum period. The same penalty
shall be imposed upon any person who shall make such tool.
If the offender is a locksmith, shall suffer the penalty of
prison correctional in its medium and maximum period.
Art.305 (RPC).false key
The tool mentioned in the next proceeding articles genuine
keys stolen to the owner
Any key other than those intended by the owner for use in
the lock forcibly opened by the offender .

What is security cabinet ?

The final line defense at any facility is in the high

security storage where papers , records, plans , or
cashable instrument , precious metals or other
especially valuable assets are protected . This
security will be of a size and quantity, which the
nature of the business dictates.
In protecting property, it is essential to recognize
that protective container are designed to secure
against burglary or fire. Each type of equipment
has a specialize function and it will depend on the
owner of the facility which type has is going to

Three Types of Security

1. Safe
A metallic container used for the
safekeeping of documents or small items in
an office or installation. Safe can be
classified as either robbery or burglary
resistance depending upon the use and
Its weight must be at least 750lbs. and
should be anchored to a building structure.
Its body should at least one inch thick steel.

Three Types of Security

2. Vault
Heavily constricted fire and burglar resistance
container usually a part of the building structure
used to keep and protect the cash, documents
and negotiable instruments. Vaults are bigger
than safe but smaller than a file room.
The vault door should be made of steel at least
6 inches in thickness.
The vault walls, ceiling, floor reinforce concrete
at least 12 inches in thickness.
The vault must be resistive up to 6 hours.

Three Types of Security

3. File room
A cubicle in a building constructed a little
lighter than a vault but of the bigger size to
accommodate limited people to work on the
record inside.
The file room should at most 12 feet high.
It must have a watertight door and at least
fire proof for one hour.

Personnel Identification and

Movement Control
Badge must be tamper-resistant
They should contain a clear and recent
photograph of the bearer
The photograph should be at least 1 inch
square and should be updated every two or
three years or when there is a significant
change in appearance
Should additionally contain vital statistics
such as date of birth, height, weight, color
of hair and eyes, gender and thumbprints

Types of Personnel
Personal recognition
Artificial recognition

Use of Pass System

Single pass system
The badge or pass coded authorization to enter specific
areas is issued to an employee who keeps it in his
possession until the authorization is terminates
Pass exchange system
An exchange takes place at the entrance of each
controlled area. Upon leaving the personnel surrenders
his badge or passes and retrieve back his basic
Multiple pass system
This provides an extra measure of security by requiring
that an exchange take place at the entrance of each
restricted area.

Things to ponder under Badge

and pass control
The system should have complete record of
all badges and identification card issued
The supervisor required to check the
badges from time to time to maintain
accuracy and efficiency of the operation
Passes and badges lost should immediately

Visitors Movement Control

Visitors logbook
Visitor entrance
Time travelled

Package Movement Control

No packages shall be authorized to be
brought inside the industrial installation,
offices and work area without proper
Outgoing packages carried by personnel
should be closely inspected
Any personnel/visitor entering the
installation with a package should deposit
the same to the security and in return
receives the number tag.

Vehicle Movement control and


Privately owned vehicle of personnel/visitor should be

registered and are subject to the identification and
admittance procedure
Vehicles should be subjected for search at the entrance
and exit.
All visitors with vehicles should provide the security as to
the complete details of their duration of stay, person to be
visited and other information
All vehicles of visitors should be given a sign/sticker to be
place on the windshield
Traffic warning sign should be installed in all entrances in
order to guide the visitors in their destination and provide
them necessary safety precautions
Security personnel must constantly supervise parking
areas and make frequent spot searches of vehicles found

Building Access Control

At any physical barrier, a security system must possess the

ability to distinguish among authorized persons,
unauthorized persons. This is to assist the security
personnel protects sensitive are and information within the
Appropriate warning signs should be posted at the building
perimeter. Special restricted entry facilities to public access
should be provided. This will be dependent on the degree of
security needed for the protection of property, activity and
other processes within the building.
The access to the restricted area shall be limited to
authorize personnel who have the direct involvement with
the installation, construction and operation and
maintenance of the equipment and systems and/or use of
the materials contained within the restricted area. A clearcut policy on the access control should be disseminated to
all personnel of the installation.

Personnel Security

Includes all the security measures designed

to prevent unsuitable individuals or persons
of doubtful loyalty to the government from
gaining access to classified matter or to any
security facilities, and to prevent
appointment, or retention as employees of
such individuals.

Scope and Purpose

Personnel security generally embraces such

security measures as personnel security
investigation, security orientation and
indoctrination and security education as will
ensure the prevention of unsuitable
individuals or persons of doubtful loyalty to
the government, from gaining access to
classified matter or being appointed,
employed or retained as employees.


Just any other technique, security must

start from a given foundation or basic shall
be referred to as the principles of security.
Are normally disseminated by regulation or
directive to ensure uniformity of purpose
,logical and similar methods of operation
can appropriate and continuous placement
of responsibility .

Objective of personnel security

To provide the standards and procedures

necessary to insure the appointment ,
employment of retention of suitable and loyal
individuals in government service.
To develop the necessary and proper disciplined
among the applicants and employee in the
government service as well as protect and
preserve the security interest of the Philippine
Inculcate the desirable security attitudes and
habits among the applicants and employee of
the government as well as promote the
efficiency of the service.

Basic politics in personnel

No person is entitled solely by virtue of his
grade or positions to knowledge or possession
of classified matter. Classified matter shall be
entrusted only to those individual whose official
duties require such knowledge possession , and
who have been granted the proper clearance .
All personnel whose duties require access to
classified matter shall be subject to a security
investigation to determine the eligibility for the
required security clearance
All personnel shall undergo security
orientation, indoctrination and security

Document Security

Classified Information
Material that a government body claims is
sensitive information that requires protection of
confidentiality, integrity, or availability that
required security clearance.
Information Sensitivity-is a control of access to
information or knowledge that might result in loss
of an advantage or level of security if disclosed to
Security Clearance-a status granted to individuals
allowing them to access to classified information
or to restricted areas after completion of thorough
background check.

Classified Information
Restricted Area-a zone established by a
sanctioning body to prohibit specific
activities in a specific area.
Background Check-the process of looking up
and compiling criminal records, commercial
records and financial records of an
individual organization.
E.g. Employment screening, Loyalty check

Forms of Background

Classified Information

The term Need to Know, when used by government

and other organizations, describes the restriction of
data which is considered very sensitive. Under needto-know restrictions, even if one has all the necessary
official approvals to access certain information, one
would not be given access to such information, or
read into a clandestine operation, unless one has a
specific need to know, that is, access to the
information must be nessesary for the conduct of
ones official duties. No one is supposed to be given
an access to the need to know even when it comes to
the rank and position of an individual.

Classified Information

Compartmentalization (Information Security) In matters

concerning information security, whether public or private
sector, compartmentalization is the limiting of access to
information to persons or other entities who need to know
it in order to perform certain tasks. The concept
originated in the handling of classified information in
military and intelligence applications, though it dates back
to antiquity, and was used to successfully keep the secret
of Greek fire. The basis for compartmentalization is the
idea that, if fewer people know the details of a mission or
task, the risk or likelihood that such information will be
compromised or fall into the hands of opposition is
decreased. Hence, varying levels of clearance within
organizations exists.

Classified Information
Top Secret (YELLOW) is the highest form of classified
information. Information is further compartmented
so that specific access using a code word after top
secret is a legal way to hide collective and
important information. Such material would cause
exceptionally grave damage to national security if
made publicly available.
Secret (RED)-it is desired that no document be
released which refers to experiments with humans
and might have adverse effect on public opinion or
result in legal suits. Documents covering such work
field should be classified secret.

Classified Information

Secret material would cause serious damage

to national security if it were publicly available.
Confidential (BLUE)material would cause
damage or prejudicial to national security if
publicly available.
Restricted material would cause undesirable
effects if publicly available.
Official material forms the generality of
government business, public service delivery
and commercial activity.

Classified Information

Clearance is a general classification, that

comprises a variety of rules controlling the
level of permission required to view so
classified information, and how it must be
stored, transmitted, and destroyed.

Key functions of personnel

It serves as a screening device in hiring
suitable employees .
It provides background investigation services of
both potential and present employees , for
possible assignment to sensitive position .
It handles investigation of employees
suspected of wrong doing
It develops security awareness among
employees .
It attempts to ensure the protection from
discriminatory hiring or terminating procedures
as well as unfounded allegations of illegal or
unethical activities and conduct.