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Society of Operation Engineers

(Hong Kong Region)


Special Task Group of Electrical Installation

REW CPD Course :


Part 2
Electrical Safety
Speaker - Ir. C.K. Chan
etutor@ymail.com ; http://hk.myblog.yahoo.com/p-pub
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Objectives
Better awareness and understanding on:
The possible hazards caused by electricity
Safety measures and practices to avoid
those hazards
Duties of building/premises management in
ensuring safety of electrical installations
Applicable Statutory requirements on safety
standards regarding electrical works,
equipment and installations.
2

Hazards of Electricity
Primary Hazards
Electrocution (Electric Shock)
Fire and Explosion
Secondary Hazards
Contact Burn
Flash Burn
Fall (Jerk reaction)
3

Characteristics of Hazard
Invisible Danger

Electric Current
electrons flow

Voltage potential
difference two points

Both are invisible and


can only be measured by
appropriate instruments
4

Legislative Control
Rely on compliance of statutory requirements
set in the Law.
Ensuring safety electricity supply systems
Ensuring safe electrical products
Ensuring competence of people working on
electrical systems

Electricity Ordinance and Regulations

Stringent requirements in Electricity (Wiring)


Regulation
Electrical Products (Safety) Regulation
Strict requirements for hardware and systems
Work practice is difficult to control
5

Legal Requirements
Electricity Ordinance Cap. 406
Electricity (Wiring) Regulation - Code of
Practice
Electricity (Registration) Regulation
Electrical Products (Safety) Regulation
Electricity Supply Lines (Protection)
Regulation
Enforced by EMSD
6

Electricity Wiring Regulation


Safety requirements on wiring of

fixed electrical installation


Requirements on inspection, testing
and certification
Ensure that the electrical supply
system is safe

Understanding Electricity
DC power energy

from battery / cells,


polarity unchange
AC power energy
from generating
machine, polarity
changes constantly
Electrostatic static
electricity through
friction or electic
charge, exist in unique
polarity; i.e. lightning

voltage
or
current
time

Difference Working Voltages


Separated Extra-Low Voltage : extra low voltage

which is electrically separated from earth and


other system
Extra low voltage : 50 volts a.c. / 120 volts d.c.
(between conductors or to earth)
Low voltage : Exceed ELV and up to 1000 / 600
volts a.c. (between conductors / to earth); or
1500 / 900 volts d.c.
High voltage : Any voltage normally exceeding LV
LV and ELV system are find in most of the
hospitals
HV power is mainly for large plants or bulk users
and rarely used for hospital
Stored energy : in form of electric charge or
electrostatic, up to kV and kA

Power Supply System


Most general power supply is

electricity power because it could


transform to almost all kind of
energy
Electricity power generally
provided by utility power
company, we call this primary
power sources
Electricity power could be
generated by user themselves,
this is normally secondary backup
power

Electricity power by utility power company divided

into two major categories: they are HV power


(11kV) and LV power (220-single phase/380V-3
phases) at 50 Hz
LV power is more common for general users
There is also a safer supply voltage at 50V a.c. or

10

LV Supply
In Hong Kong, the ordinance set the supply voltage for

LV system is 220V single phase and 380V three phases.


General equipment and most of the medical equipment
are using 220V single phase supply.
Single phase supply requires 3 wires: Live, Neutral and
Earth
Live is at a potential 220V compare to Neutral or Earth
Touch of Live wire will cause electrocution which lead to
electric burnt and more seriously hazard to the life
Neutral wire is deemed as no voltage because at the
supply end Neutral is direct connected to the Earth
Neutral is in fact a return path of a circuit, there are still
current flow through the wire and could have voltage to
ground during fault
Earth is grounded to have a reference zero potential
Generally Earth wire is recognized as a safe wire in an
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electrical system

Three Phases LV Supply


Single phase supply usually found in final circuit for

small apparatus especially in 13A socket final circuit


Three phase supply is for large power equipment
and general form of incoming power supply
Simply, three phase supply may say equivalent to
three single phase supply but in different phase
angle
Each of the phase voltage have 120 phase
difference cause the vector sum of the three phases
voltage equal to zero
Two supply methods for a three phase system: 3
phases 3 wires or 3 phases 4 wires

12

3 Phases 3 / 4 Wires System


3 phases 3 wires system provide 3 terminals: L1, L2, L3

offer 380V between terminals for balanced load as if


motors and most of the 3 phases equipment
3 phases 4 wires system provide 4 terminals: L1, L2, L3,
N offer both 220V 1 and 380V 3 to the users for
balanced and un-balanced load, normally for power
distribution
Two common connection methods in 3 phase system:
Delta connection and Wye connection
Delta connection is 3 phase 3 wires connection provide
380V 3 power to balanced motor load or other 3
phases equipment.
Wye connection is 3 phase 4 wires connection generally
provide power for 3 Distribution Board and then 1
power for lighting, small power and socket circuits.
13

ELV System
In US and Japan, they are using 110V/100V a.c. power
There are no ELV supply from Utility (CLP/HEC), we used to

have our own step-down arrangement to have ELV supply


Many of our medical equipments work on 110V / 220V
The lower the voltage the less hazard from electrocution
Lack of earth path for fault current
Insulation barrier shall be applied prevent exposed LIVE
parts
The plugs for ELV system is difference from the LV plugs
ELV distribution causes the increase in load current
therefore serious the copper loss and voltage drop that
inefficiency for distribution.
Typically ELV use for low loading and low voltage operated
system as if nurse call system, PA system, paging system,
door access system, CCTV system etc. Another
commonly used SELV example is the shaver socket in bath
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room.

Types of ELV system


There are 3 major types of ELV system: PELV, SELV, FELV, all

have basic insulation of live parts or IP2X protection.


Protected Extra Low Voltage (PELV IEC 61140) requires
separation from other high voltage circuits and a electrical
connection to the Earth. Earth wire is usually yellow and
green while in US, Japan and Canada are green in colour.
PELV is so called Class I protection. Example, computer.
Separated Extra Low Voltage (SELV BS7671 and EN 60335) is
double insulated, reinforced insulation, protective screening;
separate from SELV circuits, PELV circuits and Earth (i.e. lack
of earth connection). SELV consists of isolating transformer,
guaranteed distance between conductors and electrical
insulation barrier. SELV could be identified as Class II
protection. Example, bathrooms, swimming pool, sauna.
Insulation withstand test voltage of 500V for 60s
Functional Extra Low Voltage (FELV) means a circuit using
extra-low voltage but cannot fulfill the requirements of neither
PELV nor SELV. The protection of this kind of circuits shall
meet the protection requirements of high voltage circuits.
Insulation withstand test voltage of 500V for 60s. Example:
Restrictive space conductive area
15

High Voltage
Utility allows the application of 11kV supply

for bulk consumers and rarely 132kV supply


for railways company
For Giant loading, such as huge Central
Cooling System / Chiller plant or any kind of
facility, the equipment itself may operated
at high voltage, high rise buildings / large
area plants having high voltage drops, or
the total loading is more than the total
supply of 3 transformers, 11kV supply is
required
Specific Hazards:
Generate much larger fault current
Current can jump through air arcing,
therefore safe distance shall be maintained16

HV Consumers
Consumer shall have their own MV switchgears, step

down / distribution transformer(s), electrician authorized


to operating and maintenance the HV appliances.
Consumer only need to provide space for Power Utility
company to install their Ring Main Units (minimum 5
cubics) and the metering panel, 24 hours free access
and generally on G/F.
Consumer has their freedom to locate their transformer
room and main switch room, usually smaller in size
Occasionally outage and disturbance on HV supply
compare to LV supply
Consumer has their own outage and maintenance
schedule
Flexible in design to have optimal distribution and
minimize the distribution losses
Distribution loss could kept to minimum
Higher initial costs and operation costs
17

Review
Why LV supply is commonly employed for the power

supply system of hospitals?


Hospitals in Hong Kong are still classified as low-rise
building.
Almost all the equipments are procured as 220V
operated and equipped with 13A BS1363 Type-G plugs.
LV Distribution system could been carefully designed
preventing hazards.
ELV normally for signaling, broadcasting and control
function.
Under adverse circumstances, ELV supply shall be
employed at that particular area.
There is example using 11kV supply (Tuen Mun
Hospital) when the needs arise
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Effect of Current through


Human

Flow of current through human body effects vital

functions : breathing, heartbeat


Electrocution not only concerns on current alone but
contact voltage. Under normal dry conditions, voltage
limit = 50V; in damp surrounding, voltage limit = 25V 19

Effects of Electrocution
Harmful Effect to Body:
Sufficient current flowing through the body will
create serious harm:
Ventricular Fibrillation heartbeats
disrupted by electric current. The heart
flutters rather than beats. The heart pumps
little or no blood through the circulation
system.
Suffocation electric current causes the
lung to contract violently, affecting respiration
Cell damage by electrical energy
Burns by heating effect of electric current
20

Effects of Electrocution
Degree of Harmful Effect:
Magnitude of current through the body
depends on:
Voltage applied
Body Resistance depends moisture
of skin, size, weight
The current pathway through the body
Duration of contact
21

Physiological effects
Zone 1

Current in milliseconds

Current in milliamperes
Typical current limits due
to body resistance at
240V

no reaction
Zone 2
no harmful
physiologic
al effects
Zone 3
no organic
damage,
likelihood
of muscular
contraction
and
difficulty in
breathing
Zone 4
addition to
the effects
of zone 3
and heavy
burns may
occur 22

Ways of current flow


Current only flow in a closed circuit
Magnitude of current follows Ohms Law
V=IR
Electric shock occurs when
Contact with both wires
Contact with one wire and ground
Contact with energized equipment
and ground
23

Effects of Electric
Current in Human
Body
Skin contact resistance from 1k (dry skin)
down to 100 (wet)
Internal body resistance from 100 to 500

Lethal Path

24

Prevention of Electrocution
Goal : prevent direct or indirect contact
Safe electrical system through
Protective device in electrical system
Comply with local code and regulation
Provision for fixed installation and
potable equipment
Safe equipment with adequate protection
Proper maintenance
Safe work practice proper use
25

Cause of Electric Shock


Direct Contact
Touch with exposed current carrying parts
Fray Wires

Indirect Contact
Touch with accidentally conductive parts

26

Safeguard against Direct


Contact

Adequate insulation of live conductors


Restrict access or contact by enclosure /

guarding / barrier
Interlocking device / fool-proof device to
ensure cut-off of power when device is
activated
Untouchable (i.e. OverHead Line)
+55
Use FELV operated equipment
V

FELV
Suppl
y

-55V
55
V
Groun

110
V

55V
27

Safeguard against Indirect


Contact
Use of earth wire to limit the Touch Voltage under

fault condition and draining of leaking current


Grounding of conductive surfaces
Automatic disconnection of power when electricity
leakage is detected; fixed installation(5s), portable
equipment(0.2s) by Residual Current Circuit Breaker
(RCCB), Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker (ELCB),
Earth Fault Relay (E/F Relay), MCB c/w RCD (RCBO)
Electric isolation, unearth supply
L
SELV supply
Double Insulation device
Equipotential Bonding

Double Insulation

28

29

Common Cause of Fire &


Explosion

Cable with insufficient size


Abused of adaptors and extension socket trailers
Improper wiring / poor connection
Substandard plugs / adaptors
Poor electrical contacts

30

Adequate Protection
Cable insulation material cope with

environment (i.e. radioactive / greasy / cold


/ heat / X-Ray / hazard / flammable etc)
Overcurrent Fuse / MCB / MCCB protection
Current Leakage protection
Use of approved type of plugs and sockets

31

Electrical Noise
Electrical noise is generated by any device that

uses or generates voltages that vary


over time
Varying voltage generates a varying
electromagnetic field, which transmits noise to
nearby devices in the same way that a radio
transmitter transmits signals to your radio
Fluorescent lights, which use 50 Hz a.c. power,
continuously radiate a 50 Hz or 60 Hz signal
that can be received by nearby devices as
electrical noise
Impulse noise is abrupt "spikes" of interference.
This noise is caused by electronic devices that
run
intermittently, such as elevators, photocopiers,
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and microwave ovens

Magnetic Interference
Generated by electronic equipments, earth

magnetic field, permanent magnets or


electromagnets, coil components such as
transformers, solenoids and reactors, AC or DC
motors and generators, and cables carrying
large DC or AC current at power frequencies
Effect in the form of magnetic field and
magneto induction
Affect the proper functioning and the precision
of medical equipment, these sensitive
equipment by the stray magnetic field, even
the earth magnetic field

33

Minimize EMI
Solve by the use of magnetic shielding
Magnetic shielding materials re-direct a

magnetic field so it lessens the field's


influence on the item behind the shield, but
NOT eliminate or destroy the magnetic fields
Ferromagnetic material works by pulling the
magnetic field towards them and away from
what needs to be shielded
Magnetic shields use their high permeability
to attract magnetic fields and divert the
magnetic energy through themselves
Shield both the external and internal
magnetic field
34

Radio Interference
High frequency switching or electric

discharge causes radio interference,


distorted the input signal through
the antenna or sensitive detector, affect the
outputinterfering signals, or background radio
These
frequency noise, are also created by radio,
mobiles, power equipment, motors, fluorescent
lights, motor vehicles, household appliances,
computers and other medical equipment
LAN cables act as antennas that can pick up
noise from fluorescent lights, electric motors,
electric heaters, photocopiers, refrigerators,
elevators, and other electronic devices
Conducted interference reaches the equipment
through the supply mains
35

Treatment to RFI
Radio frequency (or RF) shielding is required

when it is necessary to block interference fields


of high frequency - 100 kilohertz and above
Keep maximum possible distance from these
equipment
Coaxial cable is far less susceptible to noise
than twisted pair cable because it is shielded by
a conductive sheath which is electrically
grounded to prevent noise from reaching the
inner conductor
These shields typically use copper, aluminum,
galvanized steel, or conductive rubber, plastic
or paints
These materials work at high frequencies by
means of their high conductivity, and little or no
36
magnetic permeability

Total Solution to EMI & RFI


Ferromagnetic material works for DC current or low

frequency AC power but not high frequency sources


High frequency electric field creates large amount
of eddy current and eddy current is useful in
demagnetize the magnetic field
With proper construction, magnetic shielding alloys
have the ability to function as broadband shields,
shielding both RF and magnetic interference fields.
The first method utilises stainless steel materials
which can be fabricated into modular system.
The second method utilises copper that can also be
fabricated into the modular system or as a standard
building material in "INSITU" shielding
37

Lightning Protection
High risk of isolated high rise building

being stroked under thunderstorm


Popularly deemed that lightning
caused by charged cloud accumulated
up to level of breakthrough the air;
therefore before striking, the earth is
full of
opposite
charge
charge
could
follow the underground
The
cable enters the building and cause spike and
surge to equipment
Surge arrester are installed at the boundary
of building where the cable entry
Secondary surge protection shall be install at
sub-main distribution minimize the surge
generated by other device within the building38

Typical Lightning Protection

Extract from BS6651

39

Application of Earthing
Allow zero potential to supply system (i.e.

Neutral)
Protect human against lightning and earth fault
condition
Protect the premises against lightning and earth
fault condition
Provide low resistance and safe path for
lightning and fault current
All metallic enclosure and extraneous
conductive parts are at equipotential zero, an
equipotential platform
System Earth for LV supply
Earth connection for equipment / apparatus
Clean Earth for signaling and noise
40

Types of Earthing
Supply System - Neutral

Earth
System Earth
Electrical Safety Earth
Lightning Earth
Generator Earth
Protection Earth (i.e. surge
arrestor)
Telecom / Computer Earth
Shielding Earth
Integrated Earthing System
Electrostatic Earth (Clean
Room / Hospital)
Cathodic protection (prevent
rusty)

Integrated Earthing System


41

Functions of Earth
Switchboard Earth : Zero Volt reference,

earth path for leakage current and fault


protection
Equipment Earth : Path for fault current,
lower touch voltage, protection against
electric shock
Lightning Earth : Low resistance path to
diverse the current under lightning attack
Telecom Earth : Signal Earth, reduce noise
and interference, stabilize DC supply voltage
and prevent electric shock
Computer Earth : reduce interference,
42
maintain supply voltages

Harmonics
Normal supply are in sinusoidal form
Non-linear load draws current in abrupt

pulse manner while this approach improve


the efficiency of some equipment (i.e.
electronic ballast of lighting, variable
frequency drive, power rectifier etc) but
cause harmonics current
Distorted voltages and current can cause
overheating of transformer and damage of
conductors
By calculation, all triple harmonics
components are in nature all in same phase
(add together) and must have a neutral to
flow in or circulate in a Delta loop
43

Harmonics Effects
The 5th harmonics in nature generate

backwards rotating power, creates heat and


exert pulsating force on motor
High frequency (orders of fundamental
frequency) harmonics increase the skin effect,
increase the resistance of conductors,
generate more heat, shorten insulation life
and radio interference
Harmonics also cause interference due to
electromagnetic introduction or the flow of
ground currents
Other adverse effects include errors in
metering, malfunctioning of electronic /
computer device, burning of small
components (capacitors)
Nuisance operation of protective device (i.e.
44
RCCB)

Power Quality
Free from noise and distortion, perfect

sinusoidal wave
Equipment with less harmonics components (if
avoidable)
Separate power sources
Use greater rating of transformer and cable to
overcome heating problem
Use of Delta transformer to block the
harmonics current
Passive filters to block specific orders of
harmonics
Active filters with feedback system
automatically compensate the system
providing sinusoidal wave output
Integrated Earthing System, effective earth 45

Working in Hazard Area


Hazardous areas when there are:
flammable liquids
combustible liquids operating
at a temperature above their
flash point
gases or combustible dusts
that may be present in
flammable, explosive and
combustible concentrations
Sparks generated by certain
electrical tools and equipment,
e.g. motor, plugging and
unplugging especially in
hazardous atmosphere
Use spark proof / intrinsically
safe equipment and installation

46

Enclosure
Explosion Hazard
definition
Class 1 Division
1: explosion
hazard exist
under normal
operation;
flammable gases
presence
between 10 ~
1000 hours per
year or more
(0.1~10%)
Class 1 Division
2: ignitible
concentration of
flammable gases
or vapours not
normally
presence but
may presence in
the event of
fault; less than
10 hours per
year
(0.01~0.1%)

Index of Protection (IP)

47

Use of ELV Luminaires


LED products include night lights, hand held flash

lights, and area or task lighting.


The benefits of LED technology are most beneficial in
the low voltage ( 12 -24 V DC) automotive, marine
and alternative power areas.
The next level of advancement will include a line of
products incorporating high power LEDs capable of
providing an even higher level of illumination,
Daylight 5500K colour.
Simply put out light (glowing photons) instead of heat
Sealed in resin to make them shockproof waterproof
and more durable

48

Advantages of LED
newest LEDs offer a brightness of 25

lumens per watt but still short of


fluorescent 100 lumens per watt and
metal halide sources
Slower degrade initially up to 10% over
the first 1000hrs of operation followed
by a slower
rate of
loss
standard
fordecline
lifetimeto
of30%
LED is
around 50000hrs
Industry
after 50000hrs
percentage of the electrical power is going
Higher
directly to generating light, generate very little heat
RoHS standard stands for Restriction of Certain
Hazardous Substances : remove six hazardous
substances from the manufacturing process, limited to
max. 0.1% concentration: Cadmium (Cd), Mercury (Hg),
Hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)), Polybrominated
Biphenyls (PBBs), Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers
49
(PBDEs), Lead (Pb)

Use of Remote Light


Sources

Fiber optic fixtures offers full range of luminaries for

indoor and outdoor use and saves running cost to 25%


Fiber-optic systems benefits include small size, light
weight, and resistance to corrosion
An illuminator provides a single source of light, which is
then transmitted along harnesses to fittings that
provide light wherever required, from exterior
landscapes to individual works of art
Lower electric power transmission loss
Maintenance ease, especially in inaccessible locations;
light source can be put in a convenient, safe, accessible
place
Prism light guide provides soft and uniform, linear light
along the corridor
Removes infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) energy
Reduce energy from air-cooler, less demand in cooling
load (i.e. 30% compare with 80% of light bulb)
50

Fibre Optics Light

51

Application of Fiber Optics


Light

Fire safety - light guides carry light instead of

electricity, safely for use, less electrocution


Fit for hazardous environments, such as areas with
explosive gases, or in wet locations like pools and
fountains
At areas with EMI-sensitive equipment because light
guide cannot conduct electromagnetic interference
(EMI)
Remote-source lighting installation with one highefficacy source, reduces energy consumption
Fiber optics and prism light guides are appearing in
emergency vehicles, produce brighter and more
evenly distributed light
High potential for use in refrigerated areas because
of their ability to keep heat out of these areas

52

Fibre Light Installation Cost


Analysis
Conventional
downlighting system
6 x 35W
MR16 downlights
6 downlights
6 lamps
6 outletsa

Costs
(US$)

Fiber optic system


one 150-W light source
installed outside of
conditioned space, 6x 15-foot
runs of cable, and six fixtures

540.00 1 illuminator
36.00 90 feet of 7 /mm optical fiber
600.00 6 fixtures
1 outlet

Total equipment cost


Installation labor: 6 hours
(at US$45 per hour)
Total installed cost

Costs
(US$)

742.50
405.00
225.00
100.00

1,176.00

1,472.50

270.00

270.00

1,446.00

1,742.50

Cost premium for fiber optic system

296.50
53

F/O Lights Running Cost


Analysis
Operating parameters

Power in watts, with ballast losses

Metrics

Metrics

240

187.5

Hours

3,640

3,640

Energy used for lighting, in kWh per


year

873.6

682.5

Cooling energy, in kWh per year


(assume 80% power transfer to
cooling load)

205.6 Assume cooling load COP =


3.4 (30% power transfer to
cooling load)

Operating costs

Costs ($)

60.2

Costs
($)

Lighting energy cost at $0.08/kWh

69.89

54.60

Cooling energy cost at $0.08/kWh

16.44

4.82

2 lamp changes per year

72.00 0.6 lamp changes per year

121.50

3 hours labor (at $45 per hour)

135.00 0.6 hours labor (at $45 per


hour)

27.00

Total O&M cost

293.33

Annual savings ($)


Simple payback, in years

207.92
85.41
3.50
54

Fibre Optics Light


Contemporary Development
Cut of cost (25% less) and increase the

transmission efficiency because of high cost and


low efficacy of illuminators, it concurrently suitable
only for energy-efficient, light-industrial lighting
In 1999, US develops hybrid lighting systems, in
which light guides would channel both sunlight and
artificial light into the interior of commercial and
industrial spaces
Improve the colour output of fixtures, green colour
has better performance
Glass fibre has lowest attenuation loss but problem
in bending and small in diameter
Plastic fibre allows larger diameter but less
transparency and high attenuation loss
Develop high intensity light source

55

Regular Maintenance
Ensure safe design and

proper inspection and


maintenance
Ensure earth connection is
continuous
Proper wiring and proper
usage
Test the functionality of
RCCB periodically
Safety practice
Only competent person (i.e.
REW) allowed to work on
electrical equipment /
wiring

56

Best Practice in Occupation


Safety and Health
Use more natural light and soft light, eliminate jarring light
Durable / Green procurement saves maintenance,

replacement and waste management costs, suit for little


downtime for maintenance and remodeling
IP5X equipment minimizes dust infiltration, deduct
frequency of cleanings, maintain high quality luminance,
and keep out of bacteria
Sufficient outdoor light at night improves the public
security
Improve power quality minimize nuisance opportunity
Use of high resistance floor rather than insulated floor,
conveys the static electricity to earth
Analysis of operation behaviours and characteristics to
regular the system to be efficient
Control of rebroadcast, weaken the effects from mobiles
Building horizontal design lessen the demand of vertical
57
transportation

Sources of Problem
Protection is not there when you think there

is
House keeping of equipment
Floated (ungrounded) bed and not using
double insulated motor
Ungrounded bed also act as antennas and
pick up interference signals
In-bed equipment hard to have earth
connection as if heating pads, thermal
blankets, vibratory pads, and so forth
Lack of knowledge in electrical safety
Improper treatment to wear and tear
Lack of periodic inspection and maintenance
Heavy demand of equipment and stress
58
workloads

Sakes of Deterioration
Equipment is dragged around, in a great rush, in

response to emergencies
Nobody to check the equipment is in proper condition
Poor operating environment ; liquids such as blood,
plasma, or urine are present at bed ward
Improper use
Inadequate stock keeping
Short of equipment leads the emergency use of
slightly deteriorated equipment, repaired with
adhesive tape
Defective equipment left on the shelves
Hesitation, fear, human tendency, and individual
behaviour; dont want to be trouble maker
Get wrong type of power sources
59

O&M Problems
Lack of preventive maintenance
Work load discourage report of defective

equipments
No downtime for maintenance
Lack of spare and replacement
Equipment only allow factory maintenance
Lack of O&M information
No inspection or maintenance logbook
Lack of documentation of daily activities
and emergency procedures
Information not updated
Lack of coordination (i.e. priority of repair)
60

Design and Procurement


Practice
Ensure visible earth path and provide portable

Ensure visible earth path and provide portable

earth
Probably use pneumatic apparatus
Widen the use of double insulated equipment
Consideration of SELV supply
Residual Current detection for current leakage
Use of old fashion hot water bottle, chemical
heating pad, heated water pumped blanket
etc.
Training for proper operation
Defective and priority labeling mechanism even
cut the power plugoff, encourage report of
defects, and identify tag for immediate service
Purchase site maintenance allowable equipment
or receive manufacturers technical training 61

O&M Best Practice


Goals
Planning
Energy Accounting
Staffing, Organizing
Training
Outsourcing,
Consultant
Partnerships
Documentation
Tools
Assessments
Tune ups

Automatic controls
Scheduling
Tracking
Preventive Operation &
Maintenance
Survey on current
practices to review
O&M schedules
Find the most cost
effective performance
Post monitoring for
continuous
improvement

62

Implementation
Criteria of success
Top management support and
quantitative tangible and intangible
benefits
Fixed and well considered goals and
objectives
Detailed plans and offer sufficent
resources
Invite outsider assessment and
professional advisory
Participation and involvement
Comprehensive audit and success
of results and reward
Announcement
criteria
Compare with schedule of progress and review
overall program
Demonstrate achievement to public
63
Share experience for best practice and benchmarking

Develop Emergency Plans


Hold coordination meetings with various

departments / sections to make risk


assessments
Identify the level of risk, probability of
occurrence, and possible preventive
measures
Drafts of safe procedures to prevent the risk
Procedures when the risk is broken out
Practice and review the plans through
training, regular drills, professional ideas and
experience from other hospitals
Organize emergency team
Document the plans, regular review and send
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updated copies to front line

Emergency Procedures

Report the failure to control centre


CMCS helps to sort out and identify the problems
Control centre inform the fault and emergency plan
to be implemented
Give alerts and alarm to affected area
Isolate the fault and keep close monitoring
Report the situation to emergency team and the
team leader
Keep all records and remote control by the leaderin-charge
Confirm the fault and takes emergency procedures
Clear the fault and resume to normal
Continuous the monitoring until the alarms resume
or appropriate tests are passed
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Training and Drills


Interpret the goals and objectives
Highlight the concerns on health and safety
Induction to new staffs
Regular training to top up and refresh their

memories
Chance to announce the latest procedures and
share the experience of failure
Helps to find out the sake of problems / failures
or latent problems
Enhance occupation health and safety
Chance of brainstorming for better practices
Reinforce the experiences under emergency
circumstances
Probably improve the efficiency and extend life
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of equipment

General Safety Practices


Use lower voltages - 110V or lower, suitable

for lighting but step down device required


Emergency procedures in the event of an
accident
Power cut-off switch can be easily reached
Electric shock first aid procedures remove
the electricity before any treatment to victims

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Specify Safety Procedures


Electrical / Mechanical

system maintenance
lockout / tagout procedures
Avoid inadvertent release
of energy (electrical and /
or mechanical) causing
serious harm to people
working on the system
Effective isolation of power
supply
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Steps for Lockout / Tagout


Procedures
Plan the shut down of the

system.
Alert operator and other
users of the shut down
Lockout the power supply to
the system at the most
appropriate point
Have all teams/workers place
their personal & individual
padlocks on the lockout point

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Steps for Lockout / Tagout


Procedures
Put a warning tag at the

lockout
Release all stored or residual
energies (e.g. capacitors,
loaded spring etc.)
Test the circuit to confirm it
is dead
Each team/worker should
remove only his own
padlock upon completion of
his part of work
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