You are on page 1of 12

Chapter 10 Section 1

Objectives:
Describe how temperature relates to kinetic
energy

Compare temperatures on different


temperature scales

Give examples of thermal expansion


It’s a Fact!
How much energy does the human body radiate
in 1 second?

It radiates about as much energy as a 60 W light


bulb!
Temperatur
e:
Definition: a measure of the average kinetic
energy of the particles in an object

Temperature & Kinetic Energy:


Matter is made of atoms and molecules that are
constantly moving
The faster the particles move the more heat they
create

http://www.humboldt.edu/~rap1/ChemSupp/Images/Trans_motion_
Wiki.gif
Average Kinetic Energy of
Particles:
Individual particles have different amounts of
kinetic energy

Temperature is the measure of the average


kinetic energy

The temperature does not depend on how


much of a substance you have
Measuring Temperature:
Using a thermometer: a thin glass tube filled with
a liquid
Mercury or alcohol often used because they remain
liquid over a large temperature range

Thermal expansion: the increase in the volume of


a substance because of an increase in
temperature
3 Temperature Scales:
Fahrenheit (°F)
Commonly used in the US

Celsius (°C)
Divided into 100 equal parts
Scientists frequently use

Kelvin (K)
Official SI temperature scale
O K or “absolute zero” equal to about -459°F
Background on temperature
scales:
Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686-1736):
 1st mercury thermometer
 He chose 30° as freezing temp of water and 90° as body temp

Anders Celsius (1701-1744):


 Used by the scientific community
 He chose 0° as freezing temp and 100° as boiling temp of water

William Thomson (1824-1907) & Lord Kelvin:


 Theorized that a substance would lose all energy at a temp of -273°C
 Assigned that point as zero on his scale
Temperature Conversion:
Fahrenheit (°F) Celsius (°C) Kelvin (K)

Water boils 212 100 373


Body temp 98.6 37 310
Room temp 68 20 293
Water freezes 32 0 273
Temperature Conversion:
Equations
To Convert Equations (examples pg. 277)
Celsius to Fahrenheit
°F = (9/5 x °C) + 32
Fahrenheit to Celsius
°C = 5/9 x (°F -32)
Celsius to Kelvin
K = °C + 273
Kelvin to Celsius
°C = K - 273
Thermal Expansion:
Expansion joints in highways
Bridges have expansion joints to protect against
breaking in hot weather
Bimetallic strips in thermostats
2 different metals on a thin strip
Expand at different rates
Coiling or uncoiling opens an electrical circuit
Thermal expansion in hot-air balloons
Heated air expands, increase kinetic energy
Air becomes less dense than outside air, balloon
rises!
Quick Quiz:
Most substances when they are
cooled.

Scientists use either the scale or the


scale.

Temperature as average kinetic


energy decreases.