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Chapter 10 Section 1

Describe how temperature relates to kinetic

Compare temperatures on different

temperature scales

Give examples of thermal expansion

It’s a Fact!
How much energy does the human body radiate
in 1 second?

It radiates about as much energy as a 60 W light

Definition: a measure of the average kinetic
energy of the particles in an object

Temperature & Kinetic Energy:

Matter is made of atoms and molecules that are
constantly moving
The faster the particles move the more heat they
Average Kinetic Energy of
Individual particles have different amounts of
kinetic energy

Temperature is the measure of the average

kinetic energy

The temperature does not depend on how

much of a substance you have
Measuring Temperature:
Using a thermometer: a thin glass tube filled with
a liquid
Mercury or alcohol often used because they remain
liquid over a large temperature range

Thermal expansion: the increase in the volume of

a substance because of an increase in
3 Temperature Scales:
Fahrenheit (°F)
Commonly used in the US

Celsius (°C)
Divided into 100 equal parts
Scientists frequently use

Kelvin (K)
Official SI temperature scale
O K or “absolute zero” equal to about -459°F
Background on temperature
Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686-1736):
 1st mercury thermometer
 He chose 30° as freezing temp of water and 90° as body temp

Anders Celsius (1701-1744):

 Used by the scientific community
 He chose 0° as freezing temp and 100° as boiling temp of water

William Thomson (1824-1907) & Lord Kelvin:

 Theorized that a substance would lose all energy at a temp of -273°C
 Assigned that point as zero on his scale
Temperature Conversion:
Fahrenheit (°F) Celsius (°C) Kelvin (K)

Water boils 212 100 373

Body temp 98.6 37 310
Room temp 68 20 293
Water freezes 32 0 273
Temperature Conversion:
To Convert Equations (examples pg. 277)
Celsius to Fahrenheit
°F = (9/5 x °C) + 32
Fahrenheit to Celsius
°C = 5/9 x (°F -32)
Celsius to Kelvin
K = °C + 273
Kelvin to Celsius
°C = K - 273
Thermal Expansion:
Expansion joints in highways
Bridges have expansion joints to protect against
breaking in hot weather
Bimetallic strips in thermostats
2 different metals on a thin strip
Expand at different rates
Coiling or uncoiling opens an electrical circuit
Thermal expansion in hot-air balloons
Heated air expands, increase kinetic energy
Air becomes less dense than outside air, balloon
Quick Quiz:
Most substances when they are

Scientists use either the scale or the


Temperature as average kinetic

energy decreases.