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light amplification by stimulated emission

LASER
of radiation

PRESENTED BY :
NAME:- FAIZ AKRAM
SYSTEM-ID:- 2012012881

Introduction..
1)The term laser stands for light amplification

by stimulated emission of radiation.


2)It is a device that produce light beam with
the waves all exactly in phase with one
another, i.e., light is coherent.
3)A laser light is very nearly monochromatic

Some basic process involved in


laser..
1) Stimulated Absorption:

It is the process in which electromagnetic


radiation of appropriate frequency can pump
the atom to its excited state.
The rate of stimulated absorption depends on
both the intensity of external & the no. of
atoms in lower energy state.

Continue
E2

excited state

Atom
E2

Atom

h
E1
Before absorption

E1

ground state
After absorption

2) Spontaneous Emission :
An excited atom can stay in the higher
energy state only for a very sort time, After
this time atom in the excited state E2 make a
spontaneous transition to the energy state
E1 , This phenomenon is known as
spontaneous emission.
Since this phenomenon can occur even in the
absence of any radiation so this is called as
spontaneous emission.
Hence the rate of spontaneous emission only
depends on the number of atoms in excited
state.

Continue
Excited

Atom

Excited state

E2

E2

(incoherent radia
Ground state
Before emission

E1

Atom
After emission

E1

3) Stimulated Emission :
When photon of suitable energy is made to fall on an
excited atom in the higher energy state, then this atom
transits back to the ground state by emitting a photon of
energy h = E2 E1. Thus there is two photon of same
energy and same phase. This results in the amplification of
the incident beam. Hence this process is called stimulated
emission.The rate of stimulated emission depends on

both the intensity of the external field and the number


of atoms in the excited state.

Continue..
h

Atom

E2

E2

h
coherent radiat
Atom
E1
Before emission

After emission

h
E1

Necessary condition to Achieve Laser


Action..
POPULATION INVERSION:This is the condition in which the number of
atoms in higher energy state E2 is must
greater than that in energy state E1, i.e.
N2>N1, this is known as population inversion.

OPTICAL PUMPING-:
Optical pumping:
Optical pumping is a process in which light is used to raise
(or "pump") electrons from a lower energy level in an atom
or molecule to a higher energy one. e.g. Ruby laser.

OVERALL LASING
ACTION:
Excited

Energy

Introducti
on

State

Metastable

State

Spontane

ous
Energy
Emission

Stimulated

Emission of
Radiation

Ground

State

RUBY
LASER

Laser construction

It was made from a single cylindrical crystal of ruby


whose ends were flat, with one of the ends completely
silvered and the other partially silvered.

Optical pumping was done using flash lamp.

WORKING OF RUBY
LASER
Ruby laser consist of aluminium oxide with some of

aluminium atom replaced by chromium


Through optical pumping, chromium ions absorbed
photons produced by the flash lamp.
After absorbing a photon of wavelength around 6600
(Green light), Cr ion make a transition to one of the
states in the band E1.
It could also absorb a photon of ~ 4000 (Blue light)

and make a transition to one of the states in the band


E2.

E2

E1
M

Since state M has a very long life, the number of atoms in this
state keeps increasing and one may achieve population
inversion between states M and G.
Thus we may have a larger number of atoms in states M and
G.
Once population inversion is achieved, light amplification can
take place by stimulated emission of red light ( ~ 6943 ).

Application of Ruby Laser..


Ruby lasers are used where short pulses of red light are required.
Many non-destructive testing labs use ruby lasers to create
holograms of large objects such as aircraft tires to look for
weaknesses in the lining.
Ruby lasers were used extensively in tattoo and hair removal .

HELIUM- NEON
LASER
Construction of Helium Neon laser:
The He-Ne laser consists of a mixture of He and Ne (gain
medium) in a ratio of about 10 : 1, placed inside a long,
narrow discharge tube.
The gas system is enclosed between a pair of plane mirrors
or a pair of concave mirrors to form a resonator system.

The energy or pump source of the laser is provided by an

electrical discharge of around 1000 volts through an


anode and cathode at each end of the glass tube.

WORKING OF HELIUM
NEON LASER

APPLICATION OF HELIUM
NEON LASER
The Narrow red beam of He-Ne laser is used in

supermarkets to read bar codes.


The He- Ne Laser is used in Holography in producing
the 3D images of objects.
He-Ne lasers have many industrial and scientific uses,
and are often used in laboratory demonstrations of optics.
Surveyors take advantage of the helium-neon laser's
good beam quality to take precise measurements over
long distances.

THANKING
YOU