This article is about the electronic protocol named after Harald "Bluetooth" Gormson.

THE AIM OF BLUETOOTH
The aim has been set quite high. It is to arrive at a specification for a technology that optimizes the usage model of all mobile computing and communications devices, and providing: Global usage  Voice and data handling The ability to establish ad-hoc connections The ability to withstand interference from other sources in open band Very small size, in order to accommodate integration into variety of devices Negligible power consumption in comparison to other devices for similar use An open interface standard Competitivelly low cost of all units, as compared to their nonBluetooth correspondents

WHAT IS BLUETOOTH
Bluetooth is an industrial specification for wireless personal area networks (PANs). Bluetooth provides a way to connect and exchange information between devices such as mobile phones, laptops, PCs, printers, digital cameras, and video game consoles over a secure, globally unlicensed short-range radio frequency.

USES OF BLUETOOTH

Bluetooth is a radio standard and communications protocol primarily designed for low power consumption, with a short range (power-class-dependent: 1 metre, 10 metres, 100 metres) based on low-cost transceiver microchips in each device. Bluetooth lets these devices communicate with each other when they are in range. The devices use a radio communications system, so they do not have to be in line of sight of each other, and can even be in other rooms, as long as the received transmission is powerful enough

CLASSES
Class Maximum Permitted Power Range (mW/dBm) (approxima te ) 100 meters 10 meters 1 meter

Class 1 100 mW (20 dBm) Class 2 2.5 mW (4 dBm) Class 3 1 mW (0 dBm)

Bluetooth profiles
In order to use Bluetooth, a device must be compatible with certain Bluetooth profiles. These define the possible applications and uses.

List of applications More prevalent applications of Bluetooth include:  Wireless control of and communication between a cell phone and a hands-free headset or car kit. This was one of the earliest applications to become popular.  Wireless networking between PCs in a confined space and where little bandwidth is required.  Wireless communications with PC input and output devices, the most common being the mouse, keyboard and printer.

Replacement of traditional wired serial communications in test equipment, GPS receivers, medical equipment and traffic control devices. For controls where infrared was traditionally used. Sending small advertisements from Bluetooth enabled advertising hoardings to other, discoverable, Bluetooth devices. Wireless controllers of game consoles— PlayStation 3 use Bluetooth for their wireless controllers

Specifications and Features
Bluetooth 1.0 and 1.0B

Bluetooth 1.1
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Versions 1.0 and 1.0B had many problems, and manufacturers had difficulty making their products interoperable. Versions 1.0 and 1.0B also had mandatory Bluetooth hardware device address (BD_ADDR) transmission in the handshaking process, rendering anonymity impossible at a protocol level, which was a major setback for services planned to be used in Bluetooth environments, such as Consumerium. Many errors found in the 1.0B specifications were fixed. Added support for non-encrypted channels. Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI).

Bluetooth 1.2
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Bluetooth 2.0
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This version is backward-compatible with 1.1 and the major enhancements include the following: Faster Connection and Discovery Higher transmission speeds in practice, up to 721 kbps, as in 1.1. Host Controller Interface (HCI). This version, specified November 2004, is backward-compatible with 1.x. The main enhancement is the introduction of an data rate of 3.0 Mbps. This has the following effects: Three times faster transmission speed—up to 10 times in certain cases (up to 2.1 Mbit/s). Lower power consumption. Simplification of multi-link scenarios due to more available bandwidth. Further improved performance.

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Bluetooth 2.1

More advanced than 2.0(version 3.0 will be launching very soon)

Technical standards and performance levels

Bluetooth is based upon small, high performance integrated radio transceivers, each of which is allocated a unique 48-bit address derived from the IEEE 802 standards. It operates in the unrestricted 2.45 GHz ISM "free band", which is available globally, although slight variation of location and width of band apply. The range is set at 10 meters to optimize for target market of mobile and business user. The range can, however, be increased.

One-to-one connections allow maximum data transfer rate of 721 kbits/s Bluetooth uses a packet switching protocol, to enable high performance in noisy radio environments. It has low power consumption, drawing only 0.3 mA in standby mode. This enables maximum performance longevity for battery powered devices.

What about Bluetooth´s security?
Security can mean two things in this context:
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A) We want to be sure that transmitted data arrives in un-corrupted condition to the receiver. B) We also want to feel that this data has not been seen by parties for whom it is not intended.Both of these issues are (of course!) addressed by Bluetooth. Safer transmission of data Are transmissions secure in a business and home environment? Yes, they are supposed to be quite reliable. Bluetooth has built in sufficient encryption and authentication and is thus very secure in any environment.

Information Integrity in Bluetooth

Information Integrity is of vital importance. We don´t want outside parties to listen in. In Bluetooth, it has these components: • Random Number Generation • Encryption • Encryption Key Management • Authentication.

What are the Applications?

Bluetooth has a tremendous potential in moving and synchronizing information in a localized setting. Potential for Bluetooth applications is huge, because we transact business and communicate more with people who are close by than with those who are far away - a natural phenomenon of human interaction. The following list represents only a small set of potential applications - in future many more imaginative applications will come along:

By installing a Bluetooth network in your office you can do away with the complex and tedious task of networking between the computing devices, yet have the power of connected devices. No longer would you be bound to fixed locations where you can connect to the network. The Bluetooth technology connects all your office peripherals wirelessly. Connect your PC or notebook to printers, scanners and faxes without the ugly and trouble some cable attachments. You can increase your freedom by connecting your mouse or the keyboard wirelessly to your computer. If your digital cameras in Bluetooth enabled, you can send still or video images from any location to any location without the hassle of connecting your camera to the mobile phone on the wireline phone.

In meetings and conferences you can transfer selected documents instantly with selected participants, and exchange electronic business cards automatically, without any wired connections. Connect your wireless headset to your mobile phone, mobile computer or any wired connection to keep your hands free for more important tasks when you're at the office or in your car. Have automatic synchronization of your desktop, mobile computer, notebook (PC-PDA and PC-HPC) and your mobile phone. For instance, as soon as you enter your office the address list and calendar in your notebook will automatically be updated to agree with the one in your desktop, or vice versa.

With this viewpoint interest in Bluetooth is soaring, lots of ideas are constantly emerging, some practical and feasible

By: GEETESH PURI 8TH SEM E&C