Computer networks

FRAME RELAY
CONTENTS  DEFINITION  ADVANTAGES  DISADVANTAGES  VIRTUAL CIRCUITS  FRAME RELAY SWITCH  FRAME RELAY STRUCTURE  USE OF FRAME RELAY  CONGESTION CONTROL

introduction
Frame relay is a relatively highspeed protocol that can provide some services not available in other WAN technologies such as DSL, cable TV, T-lines. It is quite popular.

Frame relay provides:
Higher data rate at lower cost Bursty data Less overhead

HIGHER DATA RATE AT LOWER COST
a.) Using T-lines
LAN LAN

LAN

LAN

LAN

LAN

15 T-LINES

b). Using frame relay
LAN LAN

LAN

Frame relay network

LAN

LAN

LAN

6 T-lines

Frame relay is a way to transmit data across a leased line

BURSTY DATA V/S FIXED RATE DATA
Data rate Data rate

Total data sent:15:44mbps

1.544 Mbps

6 Mbps

Total data sent:15.44mbps

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

3.44mbps
seconds

12 MB

3.44MB

seconds

a. Fixed-rate data

b. Bursty data

LESS OVERHEAD
Data from the network layer sent in data link layer data data

source

destination

Frame relay traffic

Routers Routers

Routers

Bridges

Advantages of Frame Relay
It operates at a higher speed (1.544 Mbps & 44.376Mbps) It operates in physical & data link layer It allows bursty data

It allows frame size of 9000 bytes, which can accommodate all LAN frames Less expensive than other WANs

Disadvantages of Frame Relay
Not high enough for protocols with even higher data rates It allows variable-length frames. This may create delays for different users Frame relay is not suitable for sending sensitive data

Virtual Circuits
 The Frame Relay frame is transmitted to its destination by way of virtual circuits to a destination point.  A VC in frame relay is identified by data link connection identifier (DLCI)
 When a VC is established, a DTE is given DLCI to send frames to remote DTE.

Permanent Virtual Circuit (PVC)
 A PVC connection is established between two DTEs.
I III

 The two DTEs are permanently connected through a virtual connection.  The same virtual circuit is provided between two users

II

IV

Switched virtual circuit (SVC)
 A virtual circuit is created whenever it is

needed & exists only for duration of the specific exchange
 Single route exists for the duration of

transmission, although the network could pick an alternate route

Switched virtual circuit
I III I III IV

II

IV

II

b. Data transfer
a. Connection

establishment

I

III IV

II

c. Connection release

Frame relay switch
Each switch in a frame relay network has a table to route The table matches an incoming interface – DLCI combination with an outgoing interface-DLCI DLCI:124 combination
Incoming Outgoing Interface DLCI Interface DLCI 1 1 121 124 2 3 041 112

2. DLCI:041 DLCI:121 1. DLCI:112 3.

Frame structure

Frame relay layers

Frame relay has only physical and data link layers

Congestion
 When the Frame Relay switch recognizes congestion, it sends a FECN message to the destination router.  This message tells the router that congestion was experienced on the virtual circuit.  In addition, the switch sends BECN message to the transmitting, or source, router.

 The router's reaction to the BECN should be to reduce the amount of traffic it is sending.  Thus, during times of congestion, the router can discard DE frames in order to provide a higher, more reliable, service to those frames that are not discard eligible.