Build integrated English skills with testing confidence in TOEFL

(Jeng-yih Tim Hsu, Ph.D. in Composition & TESOL) 國立高 雄第 一科技 大學 應用英 語系 助理教 授
Department of English National Kaohsiung First University of Science and

1. TOEFL-iBT 2. Skill integration in

Presentation Overview

Listening & Conversation class

3. Skill integration in
Literature class

4. Q & A

 When:

Third Generation TOEFL: Internet-Based Test

May 20, 2006 - (LTTC, Taipei; Feng-chia University June 17, 2006 - (Cosmos Language School,

 Tests on:

Reading, Listening, Writing, Speaking

 Scores: 0 ~ 120
 Scores

are good for: 2 years

New TOEFL Integrated Tasks
Listening stimulus Speaking response

Writing response

Reading stimulus

New Generation TOEFL
Why the changes were made?

 US school needs  High score & low capability  New technology available  Redefined testing purposes  Proficiency & accuracy

What are the changes?
 Real communication  Integrated tasks  Thinking process  Logic evaluation  Presentation skills

How do the changes impact students?
 Study preparation  Computer skills  Test taking strategies

 Listening  Reading  Speaking  Writing

The new “Testing Subjects”

 Grammar is to be tested throughout all 4 sections.

Field Test Survey Results:
 100%  “The new test is much more difficult.”  75%  “Speaking is very difficult.”  75%  “Not enough time to complete the test.”  83%  “A new preparation method is needed.”  80%  “Need oral training.”  65%  “Need integrated training.”  48%  “Need pronunciation training.”

What do we do in our regular teaching?

Intensive Training

Extensive Training

Skill integration in Listening & Conversation class
—Teaching technique #1—

Discussion Journal
Weekly Presenter Audience Groups

Discussion Journal-Hour 1 1
Presenter’s job 1. Find an article 2 weeks in advance.
Readin g

2. Lead a 30-min discussion.

3. Prepare for Q & A from peers. Writing 4. Jot down notes in T Collect data and journals. respond!

Speakin g Listening Listening Speakin g

Discussion Journal-Hour 2 2
Audience Groups’ job Reading 1. Find & read an article before Writing class. 2. Write responses to it. 3. Share in small groups. 4. Jot the groups and T Join down NEW notes in journals. share!
Listenin Listening g
Writing Speaking

Theories behind Discussion Journal
Contextual Model of Learning— 2000) (Falk & Dierking, 1992;

1. Free-choice learning 2. Personal context 3. Sociocultural context 4. Physical context Relevan ce

Teacher’s role in Discussion Journal
1. Assign the presentation order 2. Approve the article to be presented 3. Set the atmosphere (music & food) 4. Circulate and read ALL journals

Students’ gain in Discussion Journal
1. Discussion topics are preprepared! 2. Confidence increases as they talk naturally!

Re-entry & 3. Develop communication Reinforcement strategies as they learn to
maintain a conversation!

4. Collaborate and cooperate!

The 7-point Likert Scale says:

Listening & Conversation Dept. Student
The course

92-1 93-1 94-1

5.97 5.75 6.17

averag e
5.67 5.44 5.80

25 19 21

Skill integration in Literature class
—Teaching technique #2—

Literature Circles

Reading & Writing at home

Listening & Speaking in class

What Are Literature Circles?
1.Literature Circles are based on Book Clubs. 2.Reading amount is decided by group members. 3.In class, students play discussion roles. 4.While reading alone, students keep journals… 5.After finishing a book, students present

12 Key Ingredients of Literature Circles (I)
1. small, temporary* group settings 2. students choose own reading materials 3. groups read different or the same* books 4. groups meet regularly, following predictable schedule 5. Journals are used to guide reading 6. students self-generate discussion topics

12 Key Ingredients of Literature Circles (II)
7. group meetings are open, natural conversations about books

8. discussion roles are rotated 9. teacher is a facilitator; not an instructor 10. assessment is done by observation & self-evaluation 11. playfulness & fun is maintained 12. when finishing books, readers share with others, then form new groups *

Discussion Roles
4 Required Roles: 1. Discussion Director 2. Literary Luminary 3. Illustrator 4. Connector 4 Optional Roles: 1. Vocabulary Enricher 2. Summarizer 3. Travel Tracer 4. Investigator

1. Discussion Director

 Your job is to develop a list of questions that your group might want to discuss about this part of the book.

 discursive/analytical approach

2. Literary Luminary
 Your job is to locate a few special sections

of the text that your group would like to hear aloud.

 oral/drama  approach

3. Illustrator

 Your job is to draw some kind of pictures related to the reading. It can be a sketch, cartoon, diagram, or flow chart. Any kind of drawing or graphic is okay.

 graphic/artistic  approach

4. Connector
 Your job is to find connections

between the book your group is reading and the world outside (like your life).

 associative approach

A New Syllabus/Curriculum based on Literature Circles
1. Quantity of Reading & Writing—50%
0 Fewer than 20 pages in your journals 60 points 20 pages 80 points 30 pages 90 points 40 pages & above

2. Participate as a group—30%
Present your readings as a creative project.

3. Student Self-assessment—20%
Mid-semester  Fill in self-evaluation form End-of-semester a. self-evaluation form b. teacher-student conference

A New Syllabus/Curriculum based on Literature Circles
          

Week 1 Introduction Week 2 Test on students’ reading fluency I Week 3 The Story of an hour, Kate Chopin Week 4/5 The Lottery, Shirley Jackson Week 6/7/8 A rose for Emily, William Faulkner Week 9 Students’ midterm evaluation Week 10 Book Fair for Literature Circles Week 11~14 Literature Circles reading weeks Week 15/16 Presenting creative projects Week 17 Test on students reading fluency II Week 18 End-of-semester evaluation; teacherstudent conference; reading journals due!!!

What is Radical here?
Read+List Critical en+Speak thinkin g 1. Students actually “READ & DISCUSS” in

class. 2. Students are returned the right of Free choice “CHOOSING” books. 3. Participants of literature circles know their RESPONSILILITIES & OBLIGATIONS . 4. A lot of READING and WRITING Read+ 5. We, teachers, play SILENT roles. Write

The 7-point Likert Scale says: Selected Readings from Dept. American Literature Student The Term (Freshmen) course averag No.

92-2 93-2 94-2

5.93 6.14


5.82 5.84

18 43 26

5.85 * N/A

Caves English Teaching
培育終 身閱讀的 愛書人 Part 1 文學 小圈圈 (Literature Circles) 的 理念 培育終 身閱讀的愛書 人 Part 2 文學小 圈圈 (Literature Circles) 的 理論背景 培育終身閱 讀的愛書人 Part 3 文學小 圈圈 (Literature Circles) 的 實例運用

Thanks, teachers!
Your comments are welcome! 國立高雄第一科技大 E-mail Tim (

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.