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“Performance Appraisal Process”
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MD.Abu Taher ID No.32035 MD. Ariful Islam sohel ID No. 31009 MD. Morsadul Amin ID No. 31117 MD.Fuad-Al-Hasan ID No. 31031 Shamim Biswas ID No. 31047 Farhan Ahmed Ony ID No. 31001

Performance Appraisal  
Definition “Performance appraisal is the systematic, periodic and an impartial rating of an employee’s excellence in the matters pertaining to his present job and his potential for a better job." Performance appraisal is a systematic way of reviewing and assessing the performance of employees during a given period of time and planning for his future.

Performance Appraisal   appraisal Objectives OF Performance
  · To review the performance of the employees over a given period of time. · To judge the gap between the actual and the desired performance. · To help the management in exercising organizational control. · Helps to strengthen the relationship and communication between superior – subordinates And management – employees. · To diagnose the strengths and weaknesses of the individuals so as to identify the training And development needs of the future.

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Objectives OF Performance appraisal · To provide feedback to the employees regarding their past performance. · Provide information to assist in the other personal decisions in the organization. · Provide clarity of the expectations and responsibilities of the functions to be performed By the employees. · To judge the effectiveness of the other human resource functions of the organization such as recruitment, selection, training and development. · To reduce the grievances of the employees.

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Purpose Of Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal is being practiced in 90% of the organizations worldwide. Self appraisal and potential appraisal also form a part of the performance appraisal processes. Typically, Performance Appraisal is aimed at: To review the performance of the employees over a given period of time. To judge the gap between the actual and the desired performance. To help the management in exercising organizational control. To diagnose the training and development needs of the future.

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Purpose Of Performance Appraisal

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Purpose Of Performance Appraisal   The most significant reasons of using Performance appraisal are: · Making payroll and compensation decisions – 80% · Training and development needs – 71% · Identifying the gaps in desired and actual performance and its cause – 76% · Deciding future goals and course of action – 42% · Promotions, demotions and transfers – 49% Other purposes – 6% (including job analysis and providing superior support, assistance and counseling)

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Performance Appraisal Step

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Methods of Performance Appraisal In order to achieve the objectives, a variety of performance appraisal methods have been developed. The choice of method depends on organizational ethos, its objectives, size, product and technology. There are two type of performance appraisal method 1. Traditional method 2. Modern method

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Methods of Performance Appraisal

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Traditional method Essay Method   In the essay method approach, the appraiser prepares a written statement about the employee being appraised. The statement usually concentrates on describing specific strengths and weaknesses in job performance.

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Advantages   The essay method is far less structured and confining than the rating scale method. It permits the appraiser to examine almost any relevant issue or attribute of performance. This contrasts sharply with methods where the appraisal criteria are rigidly defined. Appraisers may place whatever degree of emphasis on issues or attributes that they feel appropriate.

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Disadvantages   Essay methods are time-consuming and difficult to administer. Appraisers often find the essay technique more demanding than methods such as rating scales. The techniques greatest advantage - freedom of expression - is also its greatest handicap.

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Modern method   The modern approach to performance development has made the performance appraisal process more formal and structured. Now, the performance appraisal is taken as a tool to identify better performing employees from others, employees’ training needs, career development paths, rewards and bonuses and their promotions to the next levels.

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Management by Objectives (MBO)   The use of management objectives was first widely advocated in the 1950s by the noted Management theorist Peter Ducker.   MBO is a process in which managers and their employees jointly set objectives for the Employees, periodically evaluate the performance, and reward according to the results MBO (management by objectives) methods of performance appraisal are results-oriented. That is, they seek to measure employee performance by examining the extent to which predetermined work objectives have been met.

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Advantages

 
The MBO approach overcomes some of the problems that arise as a result of assuming that the employee traits needed for job success can be reliably identified and measured. Instead of assuming traits, the MBO method concentrates on actual outcomes. If the employee meets or exceeds the set objectives, then he or she has demonstrated an acceptable level of job performance.

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Disadvantages   MBO methods of performance appraisal can give employees a satisfying sense of autonomy and achievement. But on the downside, they can lead to unrealistic expectations about what can and cannot be reasonably accomplished

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360-Degree-Performance-Appraisals In human resources or industrial/organizational psychology, 360-degree feedback, also known’s 'multirater feedback', 'multisource feedback', or 'multisource assessment', is employee development feedback that comes from all around the employee. "360" refers to the 360 degrees in a circle.

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Rating Scales   The rating scale is a performance appraisal form on which the manager simply checks off the employee’s level of performance. Some of the possible areas evaluated include quantity of work, quality of work, dependability, judgment, attitude, cooperation, and initiative the rating scale method offers a high degree of structure for appraisals.

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Advantages   The greatest advantage of rating scales is that they are structured and standardized. This allows ratings to be easily compared and contrasted - even for entire workforces. Each employee is subjected to the same basic appraisal process and rating criteria, with the same range of responses.

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Disadvantages   Trait Relevance Are the selected rating-scale traits clearly relevant to the jobs of all the appraises? It is inevitable that with a standardized and fixed system of appraisal that certain traits will have a greater relevance in some jobs than in others.  Systemic Disadvantage Rating scales, and the traits they purport to measure, generally attempt to encapsulate all the relevant indicators of employee performance. There is an assumption that all the true and best indicators of performance are included, and all false and irrelevant indicators are excluded.

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Perceptual Errors This includes various well-known problems of selective perception (such as the horns and halos effect) as well as problems of perceived meaning. Selective perception is the human tendency to make private and highly subjective assessments of what a person is "really like", and then seek evidence to support that view (while ignoring or downplaying evidence that might contradict it).

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Rating Errors   The problem here is not so much errors in perception as errors in appraiser judgment and motive. Unlike perceptual errors, these errors may be (at times) deliberate. The most common rating error is central tendency. Busy appraisers or those wary of Confrontations and repercussions, may be tempted to dole out too many passive, middle-of-the road ratings (e.g., "satisfactory" or "adequate"), regardless of the actual performance of a subordinate.

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Current Global Trends In Performance Appraisal Program The performance appraisal process has become the heart of the human resource Management system in the organizations. Performance appraisal defines and measures The performance of the employees and the organization as a whole. It is a tool for Accessing the performance of the organization.  

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GLOBAL TRENDS   The emergence of following concepts and the following trends related to Performance appraisal can be seen in the global scenario:   360 Degree Appraisal 360 degree feedback, also known as 'multi-rater feedback', is the most comprehensive Appraisal where the feedback about the employees’ performance comes from all the Sources that come in contact with the employee on his job.

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Team Performance Appraisal   According to a wall street journal headline, “Teams have become commonplace in U.S. Companies”. Most of the performance appraisal techniques are formulated with individuals in mind i.e. to measure and rate the performance of the individual employee. Therefore, with the number of teams increasing in the organizations, it becomes difficult to measure and appraise the performance of the team.

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Rank and Yank Strategy   Also known as the “Up or out policy”, the rank and yank strategy refers to the performance appraisal model in which best-to-worst ranking methods are used to identify and separate the poor performers from the good performers

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Performance Appraisal in Government Organizations   The commitment to the performance appraisal system in public organizations in India is Very low. Low commitment and lack of accountability are the major reasons for the low Institutionalization of the performance appraisal processes in government organizations.

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The following are the major discrepancies found in the performance appraisal processes Being followed at the government organizations. ○ Most of the indicators used for measuring the performance the employees are not Quantifiable in nature, making it difficult to measure the performance. ○ Due to the lack of accountability and job security, most government employees Have a laser faire attitude towards their work. ○ Unavailability of the job descriptions for many employees.  

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○ Most of the objectives in government organizations are unchallenging, unrealistic And not timely reviewed and updated. ○ it is difficult to measure the average performance of the government employees. ○ Unprofessional and unstructured approach towards the process.

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○ Lack of complete information on appraisal forms due to expertise and relevant Training; often, the appraisals are not conducted on a regular basis. ○ in government organizations, team appraisal is often not possible.  ○ There is often a lot of bias and subjectivity involved in the ratings given by the Superiors.    

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Conclusion   For an organization to be an effective organization and to achieve its goals, it is very important to monitor or measure its’ and its employee performance on a regular basis. Effective monitoring and measuring also includes providing timely feedback and reviews to employees for their work and performance according to the predetermined goals and standards and solving the problems faced.

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Q&A

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