Synchronous Generator

Capability Curve
Sudarsanan.S
Graduate Engg. Trainee
Kalki communications Technologies

Introduction
Synchronous Machines

Generator Capability

Capability Curve

Importance

Synchronous Machines

Constant speed.

Operating Modes

Excitation

Synchronous Machines
Non-salient pole generator
• High speed (2 - 4 poles)
• Large power (100 - 400 MVA)
• Application

Synchronous Machines
Salient pole generator
• Small and mid-size power ( 0 - 100MVA)
• Mid size generators for emergency power
supply
• Large size generators in hydro-electric power
plants

Capability Curve
Plot of Complex Power
 Stator And Rotor Heat Limit
 External Limits

Capability Curve - Importance

Ensure Protection
 Construction

of Generator
 Nature of Excitation Circuit
 System Condition
 Influence of Voltage and Power Regulation
 Rotor Acceleration
 Rotor and Stator Overheating
 Over voltage on Rotor

Synchronous Generator Capability Curve
Volts
A

I

jX S

θ

I


A

V =Rated Phase Voltage

B
AB
volts

θ

o

E =Generated Emf
Ia =Armature Current

A
OA

Ra =Armature Resistance
Xs =Sync.Reactance
 =Load Angle

The generator phasor diagram

E=Vt+IaRa+IajXs =E 
Ra<<0
E=Vt+IajXs =E|_

Xs =Xa+Xl
Xa =Armature Reactance
Xl =Leakage Reactance

AB
cos θ =
XsIA
AB = X s I A cos θ
OA
sin θ =
or OA = X s I A sin θ
XSIA
Real Power
R eactive Po wer
P3Φ = 3VΦ I A cos θ
Q 3Φ = 3VΦ I A sin θ
Apparent Power

S 32Φ = P32Φ +Q 23Φ
S 3 Φ = 3VΦ I A

Capability Curve-Construction
Phasor Diagram to Power Diagram

Volts
A

I

jX S

θ

I

o

B
AB
volts

θ

A
OA

A

The generator phasor diagram
3E AVΦ
Xs

S=

θ

3V

I

A

DE =

P = 3VΦ I A cosθ

3V 2

x

Q = 3VΦ I A sin θ

synchronous generator capability curve :
corresponding power units

Volt to Volt amp = 3Vo/Xs
Phasor Orgin = -Vo
Power dia Orgin = -Vo*(3Vo/Xs)

The origin of the phasor diagram is at − VΦ on the
horizontal axis, so the origin on the power diagram is at

3VΦ
VΦ2
Q3Φ =
( −VΦ) = −3
Xs
XS
The field current is proportional to the machine’s flux, and
flux is proportional to Generated Emf E

3E AVΦ
DE =
Xs
The armature current Ia is proportional to XsIa ,and the
length corresponding to XsIa on the power diagram is

S = 3VΦ I A

Capability Curve-Non Salient Pole Generator

capability diagram of the turbo generator with xd = xq
Xd=Direct axis synchronous reactance,XsSino
Xq=Quadrature axis synchronous reactance,XsCoso

Capability Curve-Salient Pole Generator

Capability diagram of the Salient pole generator with xd = xq

Conclusion
Capability Curve

Thanks