Pervasive Computing

• In the 19th Century, James Watt changed the world.
– The steam engine – extended the power and strength of workers. – Centralised energy

• Other inventions changed this centralised view of energy
– Von Siemens dynamo in 1866 – Edison – power plant in 1882 – Diesel – engine in 1892
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Pervasive Computing
• Energy became decentralised.
– Could provide energy anywhere at anytime.

• The ubiquituous availability of energy changed lifestyles.
– Mass production, reduced costs, raised wages. – More applications spread to homes – fridges, tv, lawn mowers
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Pervasive Computing
• Applications are distinguished by
– Convenience – Usability for a specific purpose – Hiding the technology

• The applications changed the world, NOT the technology by itself.

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Pervasive Computing
• In the 20th century – computers arrived.
– Mental capabilities are multiplied. – Process larger amounts of information, bills, payrolls, invoices and other data.

• Computers began as room filling and mysterious black boxes.
– Centralised, tightly controlled systems – Closed shop IT concentrated on a static environment for users.
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Pervasive Computing
• Similar to the Industrial Revolution
– Move from centralised to a more pervasive or decentralised computing environment. – The PC has conquered – Computing is intrinsic to
• Entertainment, commerce, telecommunication, finance, industry • We have a high tech culture relying on electronic creation, storage and transmission of personal and business information.
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Pervasive Computing
• E-Business
– Perform business processes on computer systems. – Efficiency, productivity, vitality – Allows for a more dynamic reaction to markets – Changes the way of dealing with customers and partners
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Pervasive Computing
• The Internet
– – – – No longer the world wide wait A standard communication platform Global village Small firms can take advantage of new technology to great advantage.

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Pervasive Computing
• Decentralisation
– Facing an omnipresence of computing. – Beyond Personal Computing is Pervasive Computing
• New class of device makes information access and processing easily available anywhere, anytime.

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Pervasive Computing
• Lightweight PC
– Handheld computers – a complementary interface to intelligent networks

• Smart cards – secure and very small • Mobile phones • Set top boxes, interactive tv, game consoles – interface between entertainment systems and entertainment providers.
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Pervasive Computing
• Intelligent Appliances – access to a variety of controls from a remote internet browser. • Industrial Controllers • Embedded Systems – cruise control, onboard phones, GPS, security features, biometric data.

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Pervasive Computing
• Applied Pervasive
– Technical issues
• • • • • •
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Limitations on memory use Processor performance Power consumption Footprint of OS and applications Power shortages – what happens when? Multiple platforms (hardware and software)
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Pervasive Computing
• Technology advances…. quickly. • Devices get smaller, capacity increases
– Embedded processor of a smart card already has the same power as the first PC.

• Wireless networks • Bandwidth • Endless demand for exchanging and sharing information.
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Pervasive Computing
• With new technical possibilities comes new kinds of application and services. • Telecoms companies missed the Internet movement
– ISPs like AOL grew to compete with them. – Now getting in on the next computing generation
• Promoting high bandwidth networks, wireless

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Pervasive Computing
– Telecoms and IT are merging silently.
• New appliances and applications will increase the demand for networking technology and capacity. • Email, wireless, high bandwidth, paging, SMS, internet access • Value-add services beyond voice

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Pervasive Computing
– Commerce and Retail
• New chances of being successful in existing markets and reaching new ones. • Mobile Commerce succeeds eCommerce
– Connecting existing services to mobile devices to improve customer satisfaction and convenience. – Leads to new demand because of enhanced shopping experience.

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Pervasive Computing
• Entertainment
– Broad field of applications and services
• Video-on-demand • Interactive television • With new technology, traditional broadcasters face new competition, growth and profits.

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Pervasive Computing
• Industry will adopt Pervasive Computing to increase productivity.
– Pervasive devices will appear in manufacturing, logistics, management and sales enabling ubiquituous access to enterprise data. – Flexible responses need well informed employees.

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Pervasive Computing
• Computers will be more and more invisible.
– Motor in the tray of a CD player is taken for granted. – Similarly, a computer system in an mp3 player will be taken for granted.
• Expected to download titles, provide information etc. • We won’t care if it is Java inside, how the TCP/IP stack is implemented.

• The application and service is what is important.

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Pervasive Computing
• Principles of Pervasive Computing
– – – – Decentralisation Diversification Connectivity Simplicity

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Decentralisation
• Mainframe Era
– Powerful centralised computing – Dumb terminals

• Move to Client-Server • Pervasive Computing
– Distributes responsibility between a variety of small devices (specific tasks) – Each contributes to a heterogeneous overall computing landscape.
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