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Chemical Bonding II:

Molecular GeometryVSEPR (Valence Shell


Electron Pair Repulsion)

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Molecular Geometry:
a
three-dimensional
structure
arrangement of atoms in a molecule

or

CCl4

The shape of a molecule depends a number of factors. These


include:
1. Atoms forming the bonds
2. Bond distance
3. Bond angles
Chemical Bonding II:Molecular Geometry-VSEPR

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Molecular Geometry:

Lewis electron dot structure

-visual representations of the bonds between atoms and


illustrate the lone pairs of electrons in molecule
-used to represent the valence electrons of atoms in covalent
molecules

valence electron-electrons in the


outermost electron shell, have an
essential role in chemical bonding.

Chemical Bonding II:Molecular Geometry-VSEPR

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Molecular Geometry:

Lewis electron dot structure

- Identify the bond pairs and lone pairs

bonding electrons valence


electrons are shared between
atoms to form covalent bonds

lone pairs (non-bonding


electrons)valence electrons
that may not be shared with
other atoms

Chemical Bonding II:Molecular Geometry-VSEPR


Geometry

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The
nonbonding
electrontake
pairs
as important
pairs the
in
Nonbonding
electrons
upare
more
space in asthebonding
valenceelectron
shell than
determining
the structure.
Molecular
Geometry:
bonding electrons.
Nonbonding electrons take up more space in the valence shell than the
If one or more of the electron pairs are lone pairs, the distribution of electron
bonding
pair and electrons.
the geometrical shape of the molecule must be different.

If
onebond
or more
of the
electronas
pairs
lone pairs,
the distribution
of electron
The
angles
decrease
thearenumber
of nonbonding
electron
pairs
pair
and
the
geometrical
shape
of
the
molecule
must
be
different.
increases
The bond angles decrease as the number of nonbonding electron pairs
Repulsion strengths
increases

Bond Angles -angles between adjacent lines representing bonds that demonstrate
the maximum
angle
where
minimize
repulsion
lone pair
-lone
pairitwould
lone pair
e-bond
pair bond pair-bond pair
Repulsion strengths

lone pair -lone pair lone pair e-bond pair bond pair-bond pair

Chemical Bonding II:Molecular Geometry-VSEPR


Geometry

Page 5

Molecular Geometry:
The nonbonding electron pairs are as important as bonding electron pairs in
determining the structure.

Nonbonding electrons take up more space in the valence shell than the
bonding electrons.
If one or more of the electron pairs are lone pairs, the distribution of electron
pair and the geometrical shape of the molecule must be different.
The bond angles decrease as the number of nonbonding electron pairs
increases
Repulsion strengths
lone pair -lone pair lone pair e-bond pair bond pair-bond pair

Chemical Bonding II:Molecular Geometry-VSEPR


Geometry

Page 6

Molecular Geometry:

Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion


Theory
-states that electron pairs repel each other whether or not
they are in bond pairs or in lone pairs
-focuses not only on electron pairs, but it
also focus on electron groups (domain) as a whole
-used to predict the geometric shapes
of molecules
electron group can be an electron pair, a lone pair, a
single unpaired electron, a double bond or a triple
bond on the center atom
Chemical Bonding II:Molecular Geometry-VSEPR
Geometry

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Molecular Geometry:
Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion
Theory

-shape of molecules reflect the equilibrium state in


which it has the lowest possible energy in a system
Two Categories:
-electron-group geometry and the molecular
geometry.

Chemical Bonding II:Molecular Geometry-VSEPR


Geometry

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Molecular Geometry:
Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion
Theory
Electron-group geometry (EGG):name of the geometry of the
electron-pair/groups/domains on the central atom, whether they are
bonding or non-bonding
-determined by the arrangement or the number of electron groups around
the central atom
Example:

Chemical Bonding II:Molecular Geometry-VSEPR


Geometry

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Molecular Geometry:
Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion
Theory
Electron-group geometry (EGG):name of the geometry of the
electron-pair/groups/domains on the central atom, whether they are
bonding or non-bonding
-determined by the arrangement or the number of electron groups around
the central atom
Molecular Geometry (shape): The general shape of a molecule
determined by the relative positions of the atomic nuclei
- depends on not only on the number of electron groups, but also on the
number of lone pairs

Chemical Bonding II:Molecular Geometry-VSEPR


Geometry

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Number
of eGroups

ElectronGroup
Geometry

Linear

Trigonalplanar

Number
of Lone
Pairs

VSEPR
Notation

Molecular Geometry

AB2

AX2

AX3

AB3

Ideal
Bond
Angles

Examples

180
linear
Trigonal
Planar

120

AB3
AX2E

1
4

Tetrahedral

Bent

120

Copyright McGraw-Hill 2009

AX4

AX3E

AX2E2

Chemical Bonding II:Molecular Geometry-VSEPR


Geometry

Tetrahedral

109.5

Trigonal
Pyramidal
Copyright
McGraw-Hill 2009 109.5

109.5
Bent

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Number
of eGroups

ElectronGroup
Geometry

TrigonalBipyramidal

Number
of Lone
Pairs

VSEPR
Notation

AX5

Molecular Geometry

TrigonalBipyramidal

Ideal
Bond
Angles

90,12
0

90,12
0

AX4E

Seesaw

AX3E2

T-shaped

90

AX2E3

Linear

180

Chemical Bonding II:Molecular Geometry-VSEPR


Geometry

Examples

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Number
of eGroups

ElectronGroup
Geometry

Octahedral

Number
of Lone
Pairs

VSEPR
Notation

Molecular Geometry

Ideal
Bond
Angles

Examples

90

AX6

Octahedral

AX5E

Square
Pyramidal

90

Copyright McGraw-Hill 2009


2

AX4E2

Copyright
McGraw-Hill
Copyright
McGraw-Hill
2009
Chemical Bonding
II:Molecular
Geometry-VSEPR
Geometry2009

Square
Planar

90

Page
1313

Molecular Geometry:
Steps to determine Geometry
Step #1: Draw the molecules Lewis structure.
Step #2: Count the number of electron domains on the central atom.
Step #3: Determine the electron-domain geometry.
Step #4: Determine the molecular geometry.

Lewis
structure

Number of
electron
domains

Chemical Bonding II:Molecular Geometry-VSEPR


Geometry

Electrondomain
geometry

Molecular
geometry

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Molecular Geometry:
Lewis Structure
The number of valence electrons can
usually be determined by the column in
which the atom resides in the periodic
table
Adjust for charge if it is a poly atomic
ion
-Add electrons for negative charges
-Reduce electrons for positive
charges

Chemical Bonding II:Molecular Geometry-VSEPR


Geometry

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Chemical Bonding II:Molecular Geometry-VSEPR


Geometry

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