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different molecular geometry and steps on how to identify the geometry of a molecule

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Electron Pair Repulsion)

Page 1

Molecular Geometry:

a

three-dimensional

structure

arrangement of atoms in a molecule

or

CCl4

include:

1. Atoms forming the bonds

2. Bond distance

3. Bond angles

Chemical Bonding II:Molecular Geometry-VSEPR

Page 2

Molecular Geometry:

illustrate the lone pairs of electrons in molecule

-used to represent the valence electrons of atoms in covalent

molecules

outermost electron shell, have an

essential role in chemical bonding.

Page 3

Molecular Geometry:

electrons are shared between

atoms to form covalent bonds

electrons)valence electrons

that may not be shared with

other atoms

Geometry

Page 4

The

nonbonding

electrontake

pairs

as important

pairs the

in

Nonbonding

electrons

upare

more

space in asthebonding

valenceelectron

shell than

determining

the structure.

Molecular

Geometry:

bonding electrons.

Nonbonding electrons take up more space in the valence shell than the

If one or more of the electron pairs are lone pairs, the distribution of electron

bonding

pair and electrons.

the geometrical shape of the molecule must be different.

If

onebond

or more

of the

electronas

pairs

lone pairs,

the distribution

of electron

The

angles

decrease

thearenumber

of nonbonding

electron

pairs

pair

and

the

geometrical

shape

of

the

molecule

must

be

different.

increases

The bond angles decrease as the number of nonbonding electron pairs

Repulsion strengths

increases

Bond Angles -angles between adjacent lines representing bonds that demonstrate

the maximum

angle

where

minimize

repulsion

lone pair

-lone

pairitwould

lone pair

e-bond

pair bond pair-bond pair

Repulsion strengths

lone pair -lone pair lone pair e-bond pair bond pair-bond pair

Geometry

Page 5

Molecular Geometry:

The nonbonding electron pairs are as important as bonding electron pairs in

determining the structure.

Nonbonding electrons take up more space in the valence shell than the

bonding electrons.

If one or more of the electron pairs are lone pairs, the distribution of electron

pair and the geometrical shape of the molecule must be different.

The bond angles decrease as the number of nonbonding electron pairs

increases

Repulsion strengths

lone pair -lone pair lone pair e-bond pair bond pair-bond pair

Geometry

Page 6

Molecular Geometry:

Theory

-states that electron pairs repel each other whether or not

they are in bond pairs or in lone pairs

-focuses not only on electron pairs, but it

also focus on electron groups (domain) as a whole

-used to predict the geometric shapes

of molecules

electron group can be an electron pair, a lone pair, a

single unpaired electron, a double bond or a triple

bond on the center atom

Chemical Bonding II:Molecular Geometry-VSEPR

Geometry

Page 7

Molecular Geometry:

Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion

Theory

which it has the lowest possible energy in a system

Two Categories:

-electron-group geometry and the molecular

geometry.

Geometry

Page 8

Molecular Geometry:

Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion

Theory

Electron-group geometry (EGG):name of the geometry of the

electron-pair/groups/domains on the central atom, whether they are

bonding or non-bonding

-determined by the arrangement or the number of electron groups around

the central atom

Example:

Geometry

Page 9

Molecular Geometry:

Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion

Theory

Electron-group geometry (EGG):name of the geometry of the

electron-pair/groups/domains on the central atom, whether they are

bonding or non-bonding

-determined by the arrangement or the number of electron groups around

the central atom

Molecular Geometry (shape): The general shape of a molecule

determined by the relative positions of the atomic nuclei

- depends on not only on the number of electron groups, but also on the

number of lone pairs

Geometry

Page 10

Number

of eGroups

ElectronGroup

Geometry

Linear

Trigonalplanar

Number

of Lone

Pairs

VSEPR

Notation

Molecular Geometry

AB2

AX2

AX3

AB3

Ideal

Bond

Angles

Examples

180

linear

Trigonal

Planar

120

AB3

AX2E

1

4

Tetrahedral

Bent

120

AX4

AX3E

AX2E2

Geometry

Tetrahedral

109.5

Trigonal

Pyramidal

Copyright

McGraw-Hill 2009 109.5

109.5

Bent

Page 11

Number

of eGroups

ElectronGroup

Geometry

TrigonalBipyramidal

Number

of Lone

Pairs

VSEPR

Notation

AX5

Molecular Geometry

TrigonalBipyramidal

Ideal

Bond

Angles

90,12

0

90,12

0

AX4E

Seesaw

AX3E2

T-shaped

90

AX2E3

Linear

180

Geometry

Examples

Page 12

Number

of eGroups

ElectronGroup

Geometry

Octahedral

Number

of Lone

Pairs

VSEPR

Notation

Molecular Geometry

Ideal

Bond

Angles

Examples

90

AX6

Octahedral

AX5E

Square

Pyramidal

90

2

AX4E2

Copyright

McGraw-Hill

Copyright

McGraw-Hill

2009

Chemical Bonding

II:Molecular

Geometry-VSEPR

Geometry2009

Square

Planar

90

Page

1313

Molecular Geometry:

Steps to determine Geometry

Step #1: Draw the molecules Lewis structure.

Step #2: Count the number of electron domains on the central atom.

Step #3: Determine the electron-domain geometry.

Step #4: Determine the molecular geometry.

Lewis

structure

Number of

electron

domains

Geometry

Electrondomain

geometry

Molecular

geometry

Page 14

Molecular Geometry:

Lewis Structure

The number of valence electrons can

usually be determined by the column in

which the atom resides in the periodic

table

Adjust for charge if it is a poly atomic

ion

-Add electrons for negative charges

-Reduce electrons for positive

charges

Geometry

Page 15

Geometry

Page 16

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