Introduction to networks and networking concepts

By Amit Kr. Bhardwaj

Ancient methods
• Horse rider • Pigeons • Drum bitter

Data communication

Data communication Components
• • • • • Sender Message Transmission Medium Receiver Protocols

Data types
• • • • • Text Number Image Audio video

Data flow
• Simplex • Half duplex • Full duplex

What is networking
• Connecting computers to share information and resources • Complex and varied technology • Many choices for physical connections and related software

• • • •

The cost Clarity Time response The message should reach safe secured • Should deliver to right person

Basic factors needing considering in Networking (data Comm.)

• A network can be classified either as a telephone network or computer network.

Telephone Network
• A telephone network, more commonly known as a telecommunications network, is a group of telephones and associated devices, such as answering machines and faxes, that are connected by communications facilities. A telephone network can involve permanent connections, such as telephone wires and trunks,* cables, or temporary connections made through telephones or other communication links.

Two-level switched network

Switching center hierarchy

The Computer Network

Networking fundamentals LANs and WANs

Computer network
• an interconnection of a group of computers • A network is basically all of the components (hardware and software) involved in connecting computers across small and large distances. Networks are used to provide easy access to information, thus increasing productivity for users.

Computer Network classification
• • • • By scale By network topology By connection method By functional relationship (Network Architectures) • By protocol

By Scale
• • • • • • Personal area network (PAN) Local Area Network (LAN) Campus Area Network (CAN) Metropolitan area network (MAN) Wide area network (WAN) Global Area Network (GAN)

• A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for communication among computer devices close to one person. • Some examples of devices that may be used in a PAN are printers, fax machines, telephones, PDAs or scanners. • The reach of a PAN is typically within about 20-30 feet (approximately 4-6 Meters). • PANs can be used for communication among the individual devices (intrapersonal communication), or for connecting to a higher level network and the Internet (an uplink). • Personal area networks may be wired with computer buses such as USB. • A wireless personal area network (WPAN) can also be made possible with network technologies such as IrDA and Bluetooth.

Personal Area Network (PAN)

Advantages of a Networked Office
Using Microsoft Windows 95/98/ME/2000/XP

• Software • Printers • Internet

Local Area Network (LAN)
• A network covering a small geographic area, like a home, office, or building. • much higher data transfer rates, smaller geographic range, and lack of a need for leased telecommunication lines. • Current LANs are most likely to be based on Ethernet technology. For example, a library will have a wired or wireless LAN for users to interconnect local devices (e.g., printers and servers) connect to the internet. All of the PCs in the library are connected by category 5 (Cat5) cable, running the IEEE 802.3 protocol through a system of interconnection devices and eventually connect to the internet. • The cables to the servers are on Cat 5e enhanced cable, which will support IEEE 802.3 at 1 Gbps. • All user computers can get to the Internet and the card catalog. • Each workgroup can get to its local printer. Note that the printers are not accessible from outside their workgroup. • Example: Ethernet/802.3, Token Ring and FDDI

Advantages of a Networked Office
• Domain Controller 1. Authentication 2. Logging 3. Security • Centralizations 1. Dedicated File Server 2. Redundancy 3. Disaster Recovery 4. Virus Scanning
Using Microsoft Windows 2003

• A network that connects two or more LANs but that is limited to a specific and contiguous geographical area such as a college campus, industrial complex, or a military base. • A CAN, may be considered a type of MAN (metropolitan area network), but is generally limited to an area that is smaller than a typical MAN.

Campus Area Network (CAN)

Metropolitan Area Network A MAN is optimized for a(MAN) larger geographical area than is a LAN, ranging from several blocks of buildings to entire cities.

• MANs can also depend on communications channels of moderate-tohigh data rates. • A MAN might be owned and operated by a single organization, but it usually will be used by many individuals and organizations. • MANs might also be owned and operated as public utilities. • They will often provide means for internetworking of local networks. • Metropolitan area networks can span up to 50km, devices used are modem and wire/cable. • A Metropolitan Area Network is a network that connects two or more Local Area Networks or Campus Area Networks together but does not extend beyond the boundaries of the immediate town, city, or metropolitan area. Multiple routers, switches & hubs are connected to create a MAN.
• • Some technologies used for this purpose are ATM, FDDI. MAN links between LANs have been built without cables using either microwave, radio, or infra-red laser links.

Wide Area Network (WAN)
• A WAN is a data communications network that covers a relatively broad geographic area (i.e. one city to another and one country to another country) and that often uses transmission facilities provided by common carriers, such as telephone companies. • WAN technologies generally function at the lower three layers of the OSI reference model: the physical layer, the data link layer, and the network layer.

Global Area Network (GAN)
• Global area networks (GAN) specifications are in development by several groups, and there is no common definition. • In general, however, a GAN is a model for supporting mobile communications across an arbitrary number of wireless LANs, satellite coverage areas, etc. • The key challenge in mobile communications is "handing off" the user communications from one local coverage area to the next

three variants of internetwork
• Intranet • Extranet • "The" Internet

• An intranet is a set of interconnected networks, using the Internet Protocol and uses IP-based tools such as web browsers, that is under the control of a single administrative entity. That administrative entity closes the intranet to the rest of the world, and allows only specific users. Most commonly, an intranet is the internal network of a company or other enterprise.

• It may consist of LAN or many interlinked LANs or It may use leased lines in the Wide Area Network (WAN). • An intranet is a private, secure Website that enables users to share documents, calendars, and other information within a business. An intranet is often hosted and maintained on company servers and can only be accessed by internal employees.


• The main purpose of an intranet is to share company information and computing resources among employees.

• An extranet is a network or internetwork that is limited in scope to a single organization or entity but which also has limited connections to the networks of one or more other usually, but not necessarily, trusted organizations or entities (e.g. a company's customers may be given access to some part of its intranet creating in this way an extranet, while at the same time the customers may not be considered 'trusted' from a security standpoint). Technically, an extranet may also be categorized as a CAN, MAN, WAN, or other type of network, although, by definition, an extranet cannot consist of a single LAN; it must have at least one connection with an external network.

• An extranet is an intranet that is partially accessible to authorized outsiders. • only valid users are allowed


• An extranet is a collaborative network that share common goals between parties. • The key to the success of an Extranet are the dual concepts of security and easy access to some corporate data.

• Two or more networks or network segments connected using devices that operate at layer 3 (the 'network' layer) of the OSI Basic Reference Model, such as a router. Any interconnection among or between public, private, commercial, industrial, or governmental networks may also be defined as an internetwork.

Layers of the Networking Process
Sending m/c(Application) Network s/w n/w protocol n/w interface- n/w medium-------- n/w interface-> n/w protocol  Network s/w  (Application) Receiving m/c

• Peer-to peer Networking • Client-server ( server based)

Peer-to peer Networking
• Computers are playing both a client and a server role. • No centralized control • No body do not have higher priority to access • Every user can act as n/w administrator . • Security is major concern • Computers are affiliated into loose federations called workgroup, but no n/w wide security can be forced.

• • • • • • Easy to install m/c do not depend on the a dedicated server User control their own shared resources. P2p n/ws need no additional equipments. No dedicated administration It is best for nw s with 10 or fewer users

Client-server ( server based)

Three general interconnection schemes
• Point to point • Broadcast • multidrop

Point to point
• A point to point network consist of nodes that can only communicate with adjacent nods. • Hop • Star, ring, mesh

• A broadcast network consist of nodes that share a single communication, data sent by one machine received by all other nodes connected to shared channel • broadcast network employ various topologies: bus, ring and satellite • The star design is formally referred to as logical ring over a physical

In broadcast design there is three types of message
• Unicast: which is destined to only one recipient • Multicast message: which is destined a group of recipient • Broadcast message: which is destined to all hosts connected to network.

Multidrop networks
• Multidrop networks typically employs a master slave concept, with one node being assigned the network master and all other nodes being slaves. Master controls the network functions and slaves request network access from master. • File sharing, print server

Network type based upon communication path
• Circuit switched • Packet switched

Circuit switched
• In Circuit switched network a dedicated, physical circuit is first established between source and destination nodes before any data transmission take place. Eg public telephone

Packet switched
• In a packet switched networks, message are first partitioned into smaller units called packets, which are then sent to destination node one at a time

Developing a networking lexicon
• • • • • Client, Peers and server Network medium Network protocols Network Software Network services

Understanding Network types
• P2P networking • Server based networks • Wireless Personal Area Networks

Understanding the Role of Network Servers
• Server Hardware requirement • Specialized Server • Web based networks

Selecting the Right type of Network
• Choosing LANs versus Internetwork • Is it a MAN or WAN • Choosing a P2P or server based network