Network Media

By Amit Kr. Bhardwaj

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

1

Network Cabling
• Tangible Physical Media • General Cable characteristics • Baseband and Broadband transmission • The Importance of Bandwidth

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

2

Primary Cable type
• Coaxial • Twisted pair • Fiber optics

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

3

Coaxial Cable
• At one time, coaxial cable was the most widely used network cabling. There were a couple of reasons for coaxial cable's wide usage: it was relatively inexpensive, and it was light, flexible, and easy to work with. In its simplest form, coaxial cable consists of a core of copper wire surrounded by insulation, a braided metal shielding, and an outer cover. • The term shielding refers to the woven or stranded metal mesh that surrounds some types of cabling. Shielding protects transmitted data by absorbing stray electronic signals, called noise, so that they do not get onto the cable and distort the data. Cable that contains one layer of foil insulation and one layer of braided metal shielding is referred to as dual shielded.

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

4

• coaxial cable consists of a core of copper wire surrounded by insulation, a braided metal shielding, and an outer cover. • The term shielding refers to the woven or stranded metal mesh that surrounds some types of cabling. Shielding protects transmitted data by absorbing stray electronic signals, called noise, so that they do not get onto the cable and distort the data. Cable that contains one layer of foil insulation and one layer of braided metal shielding is referred to as dual shielded.

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

5

• The core of a coaxial cable carries the electronic signals that make up the data. This wire core can be either solid or stranded. If the core is solid, it is usually copper. • Surrounding the core is a dielectric insulating layer that separates it from the wire mesh. The braided wire mesh acts as a ground and protects the core from electrical noise and crosstalk. • Crosstalk is signal overflow from an adjacent wire

• The conducting core and the wire mesh must always be kept separate from each other. If they touch, the cable will experience a short, and noise or stray signals on the mesh will flow onto the copper wire. An electrical short occurs when any two conducting wires or a conducting wire and a ground come into contact with each other. This contact causes a direct flow of current (or data) in an unintended path.

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

6

• Coaxial cable is more resistant to interference and attenuation than twisted-pair cabling • attenuation is the loss of signal strength that begins to occur as the signal travels farther along a copper cable. • The stranded, protective sleeve absorbs stray electronic signals so that they do not affect data being sent over the inner copper cable. For this reason, coaxial cabling is a good choice for longer distances and for reliably supporting higher data rates with less sophisticated equipment.

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

7

Types of Coaxial Cable
• Thin (thinnet) cable: Thinnet cable is a flexible coaxial cable about 0.64 centimeters (0.25 inches) thick. Because this type of coaxial cable is flexible and easy to work with, it can be used in almost any type of network installation. thinnet cable can connect directly to a (NIC).
• Thick (thicknet) cable: Thicknet cable is a relatively rigid coaxial cable about 1.27 centimeters (0.5 inches) in diameter. Thicknet cable is sometimes referred to as Standard Ethernet because it was the first type of cable used with the popular network architecture Ethernet. Thicknet cable's copper core is thicker than a thinnet cable core.

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

8

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

9

Thinnet Cable

vs.

Thicknet

• the thicker the cable, the more difficult it is to work with. Thin cable is flexible, easy to install, and relatively inexpensive. Thick cable does not bend easily and is, therefore, harder to install. This is a consideration when an installation calls for pulling cable through tight spaces such as conduits and troughs. Thick cable is more expensive than thin cable, but will carry a signal farther.
AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM 10

Coaxial-Cable Connection Hardware
• The BNC cable connector :

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

11

• The BNC T connector : This connector joins the network interface card (NIC) in the computer to the network cable.

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

12

• The BNC barrel connector : This connector is used to join two lengths of thinnet cable to make one longer length.

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

13

The BNC terminator
• A BNC terminator closes each end of the bus cable to absorb stray signals.

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

14

Coaxial-Cabling Considerations
• Transmit voice, video, and data. • Transmit data for greater distances than is possible with less expensive cabling. a familiar technology with • Offer reasonable data security.

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

15

Twisted-Pair Cable
• twisted-pair cable consists of two insulated strands of copper wire twisted around each other. • number of twisted-pair wires are often grouped together and enclosed in a protective sheath to form a cable. The total number of pairs in a cable varies. The twisting cancels out electrical noise from adjacent pairs and from other sources such as motors, relays, and transformers.

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

16

Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)
• 10BaseT -Maximum length is 100 meters • UTP is now the most popular form of LAN cabling • The UTP cable used for networking usually includes one or more pairs of insulated wires • UTP specifications govern the number of twists per foot (or per meter), depending on the cable’s intended use • UTP is used for telephony, but requirements for networking uses differ from the telephony ones

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

17

Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP) Cable
• UTP, using the 10BaseT specification, is the most popular type of twistedpair cable and is fast becoming the most popular LAN cabling. The maximum cable length segment is 100 meters, about 328 feet.

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

18

UTP Cabling Categories
• UTP cabling is rated according to a number of categories devised by the TIA and EIA; since 1991, ANSI has also endorsed these standards
– ANSI/TIA/EIA 568 Commercial Building Wiring Standard for commercial environments includes:
• • • • • • • Category Category Category Category Category Category Category 1 (voicegrade) 2: up to 4 Mbps 3: up to 10 Mbps (16 MHz) 4 (datagrade): up to 16 Mbps (20 MHz) 5: up to 100 Mbps (100 MHz) 5e: up to 1000 Mbps (100 MHz) 6: up to 1000 Mbps (200 MHz)

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

19

five categories of UTP:
• Category 1 This refers to traditional UTP telephone cable that can carry voice but not data transmissions. Most telephone cable prior to 1983 was Category 1 cable. • Category 2 This category certifies UTP cable for data transmissions up to 4 megabits per second (Mbps). It consists of four twisted pairs of copper wire. • Category 3 This category certifies UTP cable for data transmissions up to 16 Mbps. It consists of four twisted pairs of copper wire with three twists per foot. • Category 4 This category certifies UTP cable for data transmissions up to 20 Mbps. It consists of four twisted pairs of copper wire. • Category 5 This category certifies UTP cable for data transmissions up to 100 Mbps. It consists of four twisted pairs of copper wire.
• Category 6: up to 1000 Mbps (200 MHz)

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

20

Shielded Twisted Pair (STP)
• Shielding reduces crosstalk and limits external interference
– Usually, wiring includes a wire braid inside cladding or sheath, and a foil wrap around each wire pair
• Enables support of higher bandwidth over longer distances than UTP

– No set of standards for STP corresponds to the ANSI/TIA/EIA 568 Standard, yet it’s not unusual to find STP cables rated according to those standards – Uses two pairs of 150 ohm wire (defined by the IBM cabling system), and was not designed to be used in Ethernet applications, but it can be adapted to

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

21

Twisted-Pair Cable (continued)

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

22

Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP) Cable
• STP cable uses a woven copper-braid jacket that is more protective and of a higher quality than the jacket used by UTP. STP also uses a foil wrap around each of the wire pairs. This gives STP excellent shielding to protect the transmitted data from outside interference, which in turn allows it to support higher transmission rates over longer distances than UTP.

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

23

Twisted-Pair Cable (continued)
• Typically, twisted-pair systems include the following elements, often in a wiring center:
– Distribution racks and modular shelving – Modular patch panels – Wall plates – Jack couplers

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

24

Twisted-Pair Cable (continued)

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

25

Twisted-Pair Cable (continued)

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

26

Making Twisted-Pair Cable Connections
• One of the skills required of a network technician is making a twisted-pair patch cable • To do this, you need:
– Wire cutters or electrician’s scissors – Wire stripper – Crimp tool – RJ-45 plugs

• There are two standards for the arrangement of wires: TIA/EIA 568A and TIA/EIA 568B
– You must stick to one throughout your network

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

27

Making Twisted-Pair Cable Connections (continued)

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

28

Making Twisted-Pair Cable Connections (continued)

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

29

cabling uses RJ-45 telephone connectors to connect to a computer. These are similar to RJ-11 telephone connectors. An RJ-45 connector is shown in Figure. Although RJ-11 and RJ-45 connectors look alike at first glance, there are crucial differences between them. • The RJ-45 connector is slightly larger and will not fit into the RJ-11 telephone jack. The RJ-45 connector houses eight cable connections, while the RJ-11 houses only four.

Twisted-Pair Cabling Components Connection hardware Twisted-pair

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

30

• Distribution racks and rack shelves Distribution racks and rack shelves can create more room for cables where there isn't much floor space. Using them is a good way to organize a network that has a lot of connections. • Expandable patch panels These come in various versions that support up to 96 ports and transmission speeds of up to 100 Mbps. • Jack couplers These single or double RJ-45 jacks snap into patch panels and wall plates and support data rates of up to 100 Mbps. • Wall plates These support two or more couplers.

Several components are available to help organize large UTP installations

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

31

Use twisted-pair cable if: • Your LAN is under budget constraints. • You want a relatively easy installation in which computer connections are simple. Do not use twisted-pair cable if: • Your LAN requires a high level of security and you must be absolutely sure of data integrity. • You must transmit data over long distances at high speeds.

Twisted-Pair Cabling Considerations

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

32

Fiber-Optic Cable
• In fiber-optic cable, optical fibers carry digital data signals in the form of modulated pulses of light. This is a relatively safe way to send data because, unlike copper-based cables that carry data in the form of electronic signals, no electrical impulses are carried over the fiber-optic cable. This means that fiberoptic cable cannot be tapped, and its data cannot be stolen.

• Fiber-optic cable is good for very highspeed, high-capacity data transmission because of the purity of the signal and lack of signal attenuation.

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

33

Fiber-Optic Cable • Because each Composition glass strand
• An optical fiber consists of an extremely thin cylinder of glass, called the core, surrounded by a concentric layer of glass, known as the cladding. The fibers are sometimes made of plastic. Plastic is easier to install, but cannot carry the light pulses for as long a distance as glass.

passes signals in only one direction, a cable includes two strands in separate jackets. One strand transmits and one receives. A reinforcing layer of plastic surrounds each glass strand, and Kevlar fibers provide strength. The Kevlar fibers in the fiber-optic connector are placed between the two cables. Just as their counterparts (twisted-pair and coaxial) are, fiber-optic cables are encased in a plastic coating for protection.

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

34

• Fiber-optic cable transmissions are not subject to electrical interference and are extremely fast, currently transmitting about 100 Mbps with demonstrated rates of up to 1 gigabit per second (Gbps). They can carry a signal— the light pulse—for many miles

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

35

Fiber-Optic Cabling Considerations
Use fiber-optic cable if you: • Need to transmit data at very high speeds over long distances in very secure media. Do not use fiber-optic cable if you: • Are under a tight budget. • Do not have the expertise available to properly install it and connect devices to it.

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

36

Fiber-Optic Cable

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

37

Fiber-Optic Cable (continued)

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

38

Fiber-Optic Cable (continued)

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

39

Fiber-Optic Cable (continued)
• Installation of fiber-optic networks is more difficult and time-consuming than copper media installation • Connectors and test equipment are considerably more expensive than their copper counterparts • Two types – Single-mode: costs more and generally works with laser-based emitters, but spans the longest distances – Multimode: costs less and works with light emitting diodes (LEDs), but spans shorter distances

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

40

Cable Selection Criteria
• Criteria to be considered for a network installation
– Bandwidth – Budget – Capacity – Environmental considerations – Placement – Span – Local requirement – Existing cable plant

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

41

Cable Selection Criteria (continued)

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

42

Bandwidth
• In computer networking, the term bandwidth refers to the measure of the capacity of a medium to transmit data. A medium that has a high capacity, for example, has a high bandwidth, whereas a medium that has limited capacity has a low bandwidth

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

43

Baseband Transmission
• Baseband systems use digital signaling over a single channel. Signals flow in the form of discrete pulses of electricity or light. In the Figure a baseband transmission with a bidirectional digital wave. With baseband transmission, the entire communication channel capacity is used to transmit a single data signal. The digital signal uses the complete bandwidth of the cable, which constitutes a single channel. The term bandwidth refers to the data transfer capacity, or speed of transmission, of a digital communications system as measured in bits per second (bps).

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

44

• Broadband systems, as shown in Figure use analog signaling and a range of frequencies. With analog transmission, the signals are continuous and nondiscrete. Signals flow across the physical medium in the form of electromagnetic or optical waves. With broadband transmission, signal flow is unidirectional.

Broadband Transmission

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

45

Cable selection criteria
• • • • • To determine which cabling is the best for a particular site you need to answer the following questions: How heavy will the network traffic be? What level of security does the network require? What distances must the cable cover? What are the cable options? What is the budget for cabling?

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

46

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

47

Managing and Installing the Cable Plant
• Important to understand basic methods and terminology of cable management • The TIA/EIA developed the document “568 Commercial Building Wiring Standard,” which specifies how network media should be installed to maximize performance and efficiency
– Standard defines “structured cabling”
AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM 48

Structured Cabling
• Specifies how cabling should be organized
– Relies on an extended star physical topology – Can be applied to any size network – Details of a cable plant have six components
• • • • • • Work area Horizontal wiring Telecommunications closets Equipment rooms Backbone or vertical wiring Entrance facilities

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

49

Work Area
• The work area is where computer workstations and other user devices are located
– Faceplates and wall jacks are installed in the work area, and patch cables connect computers and printers to wall jacks, which are in turn connected to a nearby telecommunications closet – Patch cables should be less than 6 meters long – TIA/EIA 568 standard calls for at least one voice and one data outlet on each faceplate in each work area – Connection between wall jack and telecommunica-tions closet is made with horizontal wiring

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

50

Horizontal Wiring
• Horizontal wiring runs from the work area’s wall jack to the telecommunications closet and is usually terminated at a patch panel
– Acceptable horizontal wiring types include four-pair UTP (Category 5e or 6) or two fiber-optic cables – Horizontal wiring from the wall jack to the patch panel should be no longer than 90 meters
• Patch cables in the work area and in the telecommunications closet can total up to 10 meters

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

51

Telecommunications Closet

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

52

Equipment Rooms
• The equipment room houses servers, routers, switches, and other major network equipment, and serves as a connection point for backbone cabling running between TCs
– Can be the main cross-connect of backbone cabling for the network, or it might serve as the connecting point for backbone cabling between buildings – In multibuilding installations, each building often has its own equipment room

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

53

Backbone Cabling
• Backbone cabling (or vertical cabling) interconnects TCs and equipment rooms – Runs between floors or wings of a building and between buildings – Frequently fiber-optic cable but can also be UTP – When it connects buildings, it is usually fiber-optic • Multimode fiber can extend up to 2000 meters • Single-mode fiber can reach distances up to 3000 – Between equipment rooms and TCs, the distance is limited to 500 meters for both fiber-optic cable types – From the main cross-connect to equipment rooms, fiber-optic cable can run up to 1500 meters

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

54

Entrance Facilities
• An entrance facility is the location of the cabling and equipment that connects a corporate network to a third-party telecommunications provider
– Can serve as an equipment room and the main cross-connect for all backbone cabling – It is also where a connection to a WAN is made and the point where corporate LAN equipment ends and a third-party provider’s equipment and cabling begins—also known as the “demarcation point”

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

55

Wireless Networking: Intangible Media
• Wireless technologies continue to play an increasing role in all kinds of networks • Since 1990, the number of wireless options has increased, and the cost continues to decrease • Wireless networks can now be found in most towns and cities in the form of hot spots, and more home users have turned to wireless networks • Wireless networks are often used with wired networks to interconnect geographically dispersed LANs or groups of mobile users with stationary servers and resources on a wired LAN – Microsoft calls networks that include both wired and wireless components hybrid networks
AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

56

The Wireless World
• Wireless networking can offer the following:
– Create temporary connections to existing wired networks – Establish backup or contingency connectivity for existing wired networks – Extend a network’s span beyond the reach of wire-based or fiber-optic cabling, especially in older buildings where rewiring might be too expensive – Enable users to roam with their machines within certain limits (called “mobile networking”)

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

57

The Wireless World (continued)
• Common wireless applications include: – Ready access to data for mobile professionals – Delivery of network access into isolated facilities or disaster-stricken areas – Access in environments where layout and settings change constantly – Improved customer services in busy areas, such as check-in or reception centers – Network connectivity in structures where in-wall wiring would be impossible to install or too expensive – Home networks where the installation of cables is inconvenient
AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM 58

The Wireless World (continued)

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

59

Types of Wireless Networks
• Three main categories
– Local Area Networks (LANs) – Extended LANs – Mobile computing

• An easy way to differentiate among these uses is to distinguish in-house from carrier-based facilities
– Mobile computing typically involves a third party that supplies transmission and reception devices to link the mobile part of a network with the wired part
• Most often, the company providing these services is a communications carrier (such as MCI or AT&T)

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

60

Wireless LAN Components
• NIC attaches to an antenna and an emitter • At some point on a cabled network, a transmitter/receiver device, called a transceiver or an access point, must be installed to translate between the wired and wireless networks • An access point device includes an antenna and a transmitter to send and receive wireless traffic, but also connects to the wired side of the network • Some wireless LANs use small transceivers, which can be wall mounted or freestanding, to attach computers or devices to a wired network
AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM 61

Wireless LAN Transmission
• Wireless LANs send/receive signals broadcast through the atmosphere
– Waves in the electromagnetic spectrum – Frequency of the wave forms is measured in Hz
• Affects the amount and speed of data transmission
– Lower-frequency transmissions can carry less data more slowly over longer distances

• Commonly used frequencies for wireless data communications
– Radio—10 KHz (kilohertz) to 1 GHz (gigahertz) – Microwave—1 GHz to 500 GHz – Infrared—500 GHz to 1 THz (terahertz)

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

62

Wireless LAN Transmission (continued)
• Higher-frequency technologies often use tightbeam broadcasts and require a clear line of sight between sender and receiver • Wireless LANs make use of four primary technologies for transmitting and receiving data
– Infrared – Laser – Narrowband (single-frequency) radio – Spread-spectrum radio

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

63

Infrared LAN Technologies
• Infrared light beams send signals between pairs of devices • High bandwidth (10 to 100 Mbps) • Four main kinds of infrared LANs
– Line of sight networks – Reflective wireless networks – Scatter infrared networks – Broadband optical telepoint networks

• Infrared transmissions are being used increasingly for virtual docking • IrDA: Infrared Device Association
AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM 64

Laser-Based LAN Technologies
• Laser-based transmissions also require a clear line of sight between sender and receiver • Any solid object or person blocking a beam blocks data transmissions • To protect people from injury and avoid excess radiation, laser-based LAN devices are subject to many of the same limitations as infrared, but aren’t as susceptible to interference from visible light sources

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

65

Narrowband Radio LAN Technologies

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

66

Narrowband Radio LAN Technologies (continued)

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

67

Spread-Spectrum LAN Technologies

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

68

802.11 Wireless Networking
• The 1997 802.11 standard is also referred to as Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi)
– Current standards include 802.11b and 802.11g running at a 2.4 GHz frequency (11 Mbps and 54 Mbps, respectively), and 802.11a, which specifies a bandwidth of 54 Mbps at a 5 GHz frequency – 802.11 wireless is an extension to Ethernet using airwaves as the medium; most 802.11 networks incorporate wired Ethernet segments – Networks can extend to several hundred feet – Many businesses are setting up Wi-Fi hot spots, which are localized wireless access areas

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

69

Wireless Extended LAN Technologies

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

70

Wireless MAN: The 802.16 Standard
• One of the latest wireless standards, 802.16 Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMax), comes in two flavors: 802.16-2004 (previously named 802.16a), or fixed WiMax, and 802.16e, or mobile WiMax
– Promise wireless broadband to outlying and rural areas, where lastmile wired connections are too expensive or impractical because of rough terrain – Delivers up to 70 Mbps of bandwidth at distances up to 30 miles – Operates in a wide frequency range (2 to 66 GHz)

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

71

Fixed WiMax: 802.16-2004
• Besides providing wireless network service to outlying areas, fixed WiMax is being used to deliver wireless Internet access to entire metropolitan areas rather than the limitedarea hot spots available with 802.11 • Fixed WiMax can blanket an area up to a mile in radius, compared to just a few hundred feet for 802.11 • Los Angeles has begun implementing fixed WiMax in an area of downtown that encompasses a 10-mile radius
AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM 72

Mobile WiMax: 802.16e
• Promises to bring broadband Internet roaming to the public • Promises to allow users to roam from area to area without losing the connection, which offers mobility much like cell phone users enjoy • The mobile WiMax standard is not yet finalized
– Expected to be approved in late 2005 or early 2006

• Fixed WiMax is expected to be the dominant technology for the next several years, but mobile WiMax will win out in the end

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

73

Microwave Networking Technologies

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

74

Microwave Networking Technologies (continued)

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

75

Summary
• Working with network media requires attention to requirements, budget, distance, bandwidth, and environmental factors • Cabled networks typically use one of two transmission schemes: broadband or baseband • For wired networks, the primary choices are twisted-pair and fiber-optic cables
– Twisted-pair cable can be unshielded or shielded – Fiber-optic cable: highest bandwidth, best security and resistance to interference, but the most expensive

• Structured cabling facilitates troubleshooting, modifying, and expanding a network cable plant

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

76

Summary (continued)
• Wireless networking is gaining popularity
– A typical wireless network acts like a wired network, except that wires aren’t needed to carry the signals – Wireless networks use a variety of electromagnetic frequency ranges (narrowband, spread-spectrum radio, microwave, infrared, and laser transmission) – 802.11 family promises to make wireless networking commonplace in homes and corporate environments – 802.16 provides up to 70 Mbps of bandwidth over long distances (30 miles) and can be used to create MANs – Mobile computing involves using broadcast frequencies and communications carriers to transmit and receive signals with cellular or satellite communications techniques

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

77

Signal Transmission
• Baseband Transmission • Broadband Transmission

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

78

Managing and Installing the cable plant
• Structured Cabling

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

79

Wireless Networking Intangible media
• The wireless world

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

80

Types of Wireless Network

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

81

Wireless LAN components and Transmission

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

82

802.11 Wireless Networking

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

83

Wireless extended LAN technologies

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

84

Wireless MAN: the 802.16 Standard

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

85

Microwave Networking Technologies

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

86

AMIT KUMAR BHARDWAJ, LMTSOM

87