• • • • •

Basic factors needing considering in Networking (data Comm)
The cost Clarity Time response The message should reach safe secured Should deliver to right person

Ancient methods
• Horse rider • Pigeons • Drum bitter

Data communication

Data communication Components
• • • • • Sender Message Transmission Medium Receiver Protocols

Data types
• • • • • Text Number Image Audio vedio

Data flow
• Simplex • Half duplex • Full duplex

Computer network
• an interconnection of a group of computers • A network is basically all of the components (hardware and software) involved in connecting computers across small and large distances. Networks are used to provide easy access to information, thus increasing productivity for users.

Computer Network classification
• • • • By scale By network topology By connection method By functional relationship (Network Architectures) • By protocol

By Scale
• • • • • • Personal area network (PAN) Local Area Network (LAN) Campus Area Network (CAN) Metropolitan area network (MAN) Wide area network (WAN) Global Area Network (GAN)

Personal Area Network (PAN)
• A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for communication among computer devices close to one person. • Some examples of devices that may be used in a PAN are printers, fax machines, telephones, PDAs or scanners. • The reach of a PAN is typically within about 20-30 feet (approximately 4-6 Meters). • PANs can be used for communication among the individual devices (intrapersonal communication), or for connecting to a higher level network and the Internet (an uplink). • Personal area networks may be wired with computer buses such as USB. • A wireless personal area network (WPAN) can also be made possible with network technologies such as IrDA and Bluetooth.

Advantages of a Networked Office
Using Microsoft Windows 95/98/ME/2000/XP

• Software • Printers • Internet

Local Area Network (LAN)
• A network covering a small geographic area, like a home, office, or building. • much higher data transfer rates, smaller geographic range, and lack of a need for leased telecommunication lines. • Current LANs are most likely to be based on Ethernet technology. For example, a library will have a wired or wireless LAN for users to interconnect local devices (e.g., printers and servers) connect to the internet. All of the PCs in the library are connected by category 5 (Cat5) cable, running the IEEE 802.3 protocol through a system of interconnection devices and eventually connect to the internet. • The cables to the servers are on Cat 5e enhanced cable, which will support IEEE 802.3 at 1 Gbps. • All user computers can get to the Internet and the card catalog. • Each workgroup can get to its local printer. Note that the printers are not accessible from outside their workgroup.

Advantages of a Networked Office
Using Microsoft Windows 2003

• Domain Controller 1. Authentication 2. Logging 3. Security • Centralizations 1. Dedicated File Server 2. Redundancy 3. Disaster Recovery 4. Virus Scanning

Campus Area Network (CAN)
• A network that connects two or more LANs but that is limited to a specific and contiguous geographical area such as a college campus, industrial complex, or a military base. • A CAN, may be considered a type of MAN (metropolitan area network), but is generally limited to an area that is smaller than a typical MAN.

• A MAN is optimized for a larger geographical area than is a LAN, ranging from several blocks of buildings to entire cities. • MANs can also depend on communications channels of moderate-to-high data rates. • A MAN might be owned and operated by a single organization, but it usually will be used by many individuals and organizations. • MANs might also be owned and operated as public utilities. • They will often provide means for internetworking of local networks. • Metropolitan area networks can span up to 50km, devices used are modem and wire/cable. • A Metropolitan Area Network is a network that connects two or more Local Area Networks or Campus Area Networks together but does not extend beyond the boundaries of the immediate town, city, or metropolitan area. Multiple routers, switches & hubs are connected to create a MAN.
• Some technologies used for this purpose are ATM, FDDI. • MAN links between LANs have been built without cables using either microwave, radio, or infra-red laser links.

Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)

Wide Area Network (WAN)
• A WAN is a data communications network that covers a relatively broad geographic area (i.e. one city to another and one country to another country) and that often uses transmission facilities provided by common carriers, such as telephone companies. • WAN technologies generally function at the lower three layers of the OSI reference model: the physical layer, the data link layer, and the network layer.

Global Area Network (GAN)
• Global area networks (GAN) specifications are in development by several groups, and there is no common definition. • In general, however, a GAN is a model for supporting mobile communications across an arbitrary number of wireless LANs, satellite coverage areas, etc. • The key challenge in mobile communications is "handing off" the user communications from one local coverage area to the next

Internetwork
• Two or more networks or network segments connected using devices that operate at layer 3 (the 'network' layer) of the OSI Basic Reference Model, such as a router. Any interconnection among or between public, private, commercial, industrial, or governmental networks may also be defined as an internetwork.

three variants of internetwork
• Intranet • Extranet • "The" Internet

Intranet
• An intranet is a set of interconnected networks, using the Internet Protocol and uses IP-based tools such as web browsers, that is under the control of a single administrative entity. That administrative entity closes the intranet to the rest of the world, and allows only specific users. Most commonly, an intranet is the internal network of a company or other enterprise.

extranet
• An extranet is a network or internetwork that is limited in scope to a single organization or entity but which also has limited connections to the networks of one or more other usually, but not necessarily, trusted organizations or entities (e.g. a company's customers may be given access to some part of its intranet creating in this way an extranet, while at the same time the customers may not be considered 'trusted' from a security standpoint). Technically, an extranet may also be categorized as a CAN, MAN, WAN, or other type of network, although, by definition, an extranet cannot consist of a single LAN; it must have at least one connection with an external network.

Internetwork
• connecting two or more distinct computer networks or network segments together to form an internetwork

Topology based network types
• • • • • • Bus network Star network Ring network Mesh network Star-bus network Tree or Hierarchical topology network, etc.

• Linear Bus - The type of network topology in which all of the nodes of the network are connected to a common transmission medium which has exactly two endpoints.

Bus Topology

• Distributed bus - The type of network topology in which all of the nodes of the network are connected to a common transmission medium which has more than two endpoints

Bus topology con….
Advantages of a Linear Bus Topology • Easy to connect a computer or peripheral to a linear bus. • Requires less cable length than a star topology. Disadvantages of a Linear Bus Topology • Entire network shuts down if there is a break in the main cable. • Terminators are required at both ends of the backbone cable. • Difficult to identify the problem if the entire network shuts down. • Not meant to be used as a stand-alone solution in a large building. • Security

star topology
• A star topology is designed with each node (file server, workstations, and peripherals) connected directly to a central network hub or concentrator • All data that is transmitted between nodes in the network is transmitted to this central node, which is usually some type of device that then retransmits the data to some or all of the other nodes in the network, although the central node may also be a simple common connection point without any active device to repeat the signals.

Star topology …
Extended star - A type of network topology in which a network that is based upon the physical star topology has one or more repeaters between the central node (the 'hub' of the star) and the peripheral or 'spoke' nodes, the repeaters being used to extend the maximum transmission distance of the point-to-point links between the central node and the peripheral nodes beyond that which is supported by the transmitter power of the central node or beyond that which is supported by the standard upon which the physical layer of the physical star network is based.

Star topology…
Distributed Star -A type of network topology that is composed of individual networks that are based upon the physical star topology connected together in a linear fashion (e.g., two or more 'stacked' hubs, along with their associated star connected nodes )

Star topology…
Advantages of a Star Topology • Easy to install and wire. • No disruptions to the network then connecting or removing devices. • Easy to detect faults and to remove parts. Disadvantages of a Star Topology • Requires more cable length than a linear topology. • If the hub or concentrator fails, nodes attached are disabled. • More expensive than linear bus topologies because of the cost of the concentrators.

Ring topology
• The type of network topology in which each of the nodes of the network is connected to two other nodes in the network and with the first and last nodes being connected to each other, forming a ring – all data that is transmitted between nodes in the network travels from one node to the next node in a circular manner and the data generally flows in a single direction only. • Each packet is sent around the ring until it reaches its final destination. Today, the ring topology is seldom used.

Ring topology …..
Advantages • Very orderly network where every device has access to the token and the opportunity to transmit • Performs better than a star topology under heavy network load • Can create much larger network using Token Ring • Does not require network server to manage the connectivity between the computers Disadvantages • One malfunctioning workstation or bad port in the MAU can create problems for the entire network • Moves, adds and changes of devices can affect the network • Network adapter cards and MAU's are much more expensive than Ethernet cards and hubs • Much slower than an Ethernet network under normal load

Mesh Topology
• The value of fully meshed networks is proportional to the exponent of the number of subscribers, assuming that communicating groups of any two endpoints, up to and including all the endpoints

Tree
• A tree topology combines characteristics of linear bus and star topologies. It consists of groups of starconfigured workstations connected to a linear bus backbone cable .Tree topologies allow for the expansion of an existing network, and enable schools to configure a network to meet their needs.

Tree…..
Advantages of a Tree Topology • Point-to-point wiring for individual segments. • Supported by several hardware and software venders. Disadvantages of a Tree Topology • Overall length of each segment is limited by the type of cabling used. • If the backbone line breaks, the entire segment goes down. • More difficult to configure and wire than other topologies.

The hybrid topology is a type of network topology that is composed of one or more interconnections of two or more networks that are based upon different physical topologies or a type of network topology that is composed of one or more interconnections of two or more networks that are based upon the same physical topology, but where the physical topology of the network resulting from such an interconnection does not meet the definition of the original physical topology of the interconnected networks (e.g., the physical topology of a network that would result from an interconnection of two or more networks that are based upon the physical star topology might create a hybrid topology which resembles a mixture of the physical star and physical bus topologies or a mixture of the physical star and the physical tree topologies, depending upon how the individual networks are interconnected, while the physical topology of a network that would result from an interconnection of two or more networks that are based upon the physical distributed bus network retains the topology of a physical distributed bus network).

Hybrid network topologies

Star-bus
A type of network topology in which the central nodes of one or more individual networks that are based upon the physical star topology are connected together using a common 'bus' network whose physical topology is based upon the physical linear bus topology, the endpoints of the common 'bus' being terminated with the characteristic impedance of the transmission medium where required – e.g., two or more hubs connected to a common backbone with drop cables through the port on the hub that is provided for that purpose (e.g., a properly configured 'uplink' port) would comprise the physical bus portion of the physical star-bus topology, while each of the individual hubs, combined with the individual nodes which are connected to them, would comprise the physical star portion of the physical star-bus topology.

Star-of-stars
• A type of network topology that is composed of an interconnection of individual networks that are based upon the physical star topology connected together in a hierarchical fashion to form a more complex network – e.g., a top level central node which is the 'hub' of the top level physical star topology and to which other second level central nodes are attached as the 'spoke' nodes, each of which, in turn, may also become the central nodes of a third level physical star topology.

Star-wired ring
• A type of hybrid physical network topology that is a combination of the physical star topology and the physical ring topology, the physical star portion of the topology consisting of a network in which each of the nodes of which the network is composed are connected to a central node with a point-to-point link in a 'hub' and 'spoke' fashion, the central node being the 'hub' and the nodes that are attached to the central node being the 'spokes' (e.g., a collection of point-to-point links from the peripheral nodes that converge at a central node) in a fashion that is identical to the physical star topology, while the physical ring portion of the topology consists of circuitry within the central node which routes the signals on the network to each of the connected nodes sequentially, in a circular fashion.

Hybrid mesh
A type of hybrid physical network topology that is a combination of the physical partially connected topology and one or more other physical topologies the mesh portion of the topology consisting of redundant or alternate connections between some of the nodes in the network – the physical hybrid mesh topology is commonly used in networks which require a high degree of availability..

Connection based networking types
• • • • Optical fiber Ethernet Wireless LAN Power line communication.

functional based network types
• • • • Peer to peer Client-server 3 –tier Multi-tier