Dial Up Internet Access:This lets you login to another remote computer system, usually via modem and

telephone, that is itself connected to the internet. You normally run programs on the remote system to gain access to internet services. Because you typically dial-up from a terminal emulation software, you are restricted to text mode programs only. This means that, for example, you can only use a text-based web browser to explore the World Wide Web. 1. When you run a ftp client with host dial-up, the files you receive are stored on the remote computer (which you later download using modem or a similar file transfer protocol. 2. With host dial-up access, you must run the web browser (a text based program like Lynx) on the remote computer. 3. Using Dial Up ,you can’t run server applications on your PC such as a FTP server so that users elsewhere on the internet can send or retrieve files from you.

Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) – The Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) is a mostly obsolete encapsulation of the Internet Protocol designed to work over serial ports and modem connections. On PCs, SLIP has been largely replaced by the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), which is better engineered, has more features and does not require its IP address configuration to be set before it is established. On microcontrollers, however, SLIP is still the preferred way of encapsulating IP packets due to its very small overhead. Limitations of SLIP:1. Slower 2. No Error Control is provided by SLIP. It depends on higher layer protocols of the error control purpose. 3. Does not support data compression


PPP ….
PPP, is a data link protocol commonly used to establish a direct connection between two nodes over serial cable, phone line, trunk line, cellular telephone, specialized radio links, or fiber optic links.



• Most Internet service providers use PPP for customers' dial-up access to the Internet. • Two common encapsulated forms of PPP, Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE) or Point-to-Point Protocol over ATM (PPPoA), are used in a similar role with Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Internet service.

PPP …………..
• PPP is commonly used to act as a data link layer protocol for connection over synchronous and asynchronous circuits, where it has largely superseded the older, non-standard Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP), and telephone company mandated standards. • PPP is described by Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) RFC 1661.

Protocols of PPP Group:1. LCP- Link establishment 2. PAP or CHAP- Authentication purpose- CHAP is more secure. 3. NCP :- Network Control Protocol 4. IPCP :- IP Control Protocol ( To transmit the data) 5. IPXCP:- IPX Control Protocol ( To transmit the data) 6. PPP :- Point to Point Protocol

PPP …..
• Link Control Protocol (LCP) is an integral part of PPP, and defined in the same standard specification. LCP provides automatic configuration of the interfaces at each end and for selecting optional authentication. The LCP protocol runs atop PPP (with PPP protocol number 0xC021)

PPP ….
• PPP permits multiple network layer protocols to operate on the same communications link. For every network layer protocol used, a separate Network Control Protocol (NCP) is provided in order to encapsulate and negotiate options for the multiple network layer protocols. For example, Internet Protocol (IP) uses the IP Control Protocol (IPCP), and Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) uses the Novell IPX Control Protocol (IPXCP). NCPs include fields containing standardized codes to indicate the network layer protocol type that PPP encapsulates.

• Link Control Protocol initiates and terminates connections gracefully, allowing hosts to negotiate connection options. It also supports both byte- and bit-oriented encodings. • Network Control Protocol is used for negotiating network-layer information, e.g. network address or compression options, after the connection has been established.

PPP frame

PPP frame..
• The Protocol field indicates the kind of payload packet (e.g. LCP, PAP/CHAP,NCP, IP, IPX, etc.). So we will have to pass the no of the protocol whose packet is to be transmitted using PPP protocol. • The Information field contains the PPP payload; it has a variable length with a negotiated maximum called the Maximum Transmission Unit. By default the maximum is 1500 bytes. • It might be padded on transmission; if the information for a particular protocol can be padded, that protocol must allow information to be distinguished from padding. • PPP frames are encapsulated in a lower-layer protocol that provides framing and may provide other functions such as a checksum to detect transmission errors.

PPP line activation and states

PPP line activation and states
• Dead (or idle), no active connection or carrier. • Establish, where Link Control Protocol negotiation begins. • Authenticate, where two terminal points authenticate each other. Either PAP, or CHAP protocol comes in use at this point. • Network, where the appropriate Network Control Protocol is invoked. IPCP is used to establish IP service over the network • Open, where data transport takes place. • Terminate, where the connection requires termination.

Summary of IEEE project 802 LAN
• IEEE 802.1 : defines an architectural overview of LANs • 802: Defines the logical link control, which describes services for the transmission of data between two nodes. • 803: defines the carrier sense multiple access/ collision detection access method commonly referred to as Ethernet. Supplements include 802.3c(10 Mbps Ethernet), 802.3u(100 mbps- fast Ethernet), 802.3ae (10 Gigabit Ethernet) • 804: Defines the token bus network access method. • 805: defines the logical ring LAN that uses a token passing access method, known also token ring • 806: MAN • 807: broadband LANs(capable of delivering video, data and voice traffic)

• 809: defines integrated digital and video networking- Integrated Services LANs • 802.10: Interoperability LAN/MAN security services • 802.11: defines standards for wireless media access control • 802.12: defines the “demand priority” access method for 100 Mbps lans, also know as 100BASE –VG • 802.14: TV based broadband communication