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Menyatakan maksud persekitaran dalam

State the meaning of internal environment.

mengenalpasti faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi
persekitaran dalam.
Identify factors affecting the internal environment.

Menerangkan keperluan mengekalkan

persekitaran dalam yang optimum.
Explain the necessity to maintain optimal
internal environment.

The environment inside an organism.

Internal environment in
plant- filled with air
animal- filled with liquid
(interstitial fluid)

Internal environment of a
multicellular organisms consist of
interstitial fluid (BENDALIR
INTERSTIS)fills the spaces between the cells
constantly bathes the cells
and keeps the cells functioning
blood plasma

Nutrient and waste substances are

exchanged between the interstitial
fluid and the blood plasma contained
in the blood capillaries.
(Pertukaran nutrien & bahan buangan
berlaku antara bendalir interstis &
plasma darah dalam kapilari darah)

Factor affecting the internal environment.

Physical factors:
Osmotic pressure
Concentration of oxygen and carbon
dioxide in the bloodstream
Chemical factors:
Salt level
Glucose level

In order for cells of the body to function

optimally, the physical factors and the
chemical factors within the internal
environment must be maintained at a
relatively constant level.
Example: Temperature
For human, the internal environment need
to be maintain around 37C.
At this temperature, the enzymes give the
optimal enzyme activity.
If the temperature too high, enzymes
denatured- so lose ability to function.
If the temperature too low, enzymes

Homeostasis is
a process that regulates the
chemical and physical
parameters in the internal
environment so that the
conditions are always
suitable to meet the needs of
proses pengawalaturan
persekitaran dalam yang
secara relatifnya tetap untuk

3 functional components pf
homeostatic control system:
a receptor- detect a change
a control centre- receive
message from receptors and process
the information
an effector- receive message
from control centre and carry out the
appropriate response.

A thermostat in the brain monitors

the temperature of the blood.
If the thermostat detect a rise in body
temperature above the set point, it
sends nerve impulses directing the
sweat glands to increase their
production sweat.
Thus, lowering body temperature by
evaporative cooling.

Negative feedback
mechanism prevent small
changes from becoming to

Other example:
1.Regulate of the blood pH
which is 7.4
2.Regulate the amount of
sugar in our blood so that it
does not fluctuate to much
from a concentration 0.1%

In plant, the need for a regulatory

system is lesser because:
1.most plant cells are dead at
functional maturity, and therefore,
chemical reactions do not take place
in these cells.
2. plant cells are not bathed in fluid
but surrounded by air. Thus, oxygen
and carbon dioxide can freely
circulated in the intercellular space
of plant.
3. plant cells have cell walls that
prevent the cells from over-swelling

Enables the organism to live in wider

range of habitats.
Metabolic activities and physiological
processes can still continue even
though the external environment
fluctuates substantially.
A stable internal environment allows
enzymes to function aat an optimal

predict the state of certain cells without

a particular cellular component.
Illustrate that most cells are specialised
for the job that they perform.

The cellular components of the cell are

completely dependent upon one another
for the cell to function at an optimum
For example:
The nucleus contains information for
protein synthesis.
This information is relayed to the
ribosomes, the sites of protein synthesis.
After the process of synthesis is
completed, it will be transported through
rough endoplasmic reticulum

The protein are enclosed in vesicles

which bud off from rough endoplasmic
reticulum as transport vesicles and
transport to Golgi apparatus.
The proteins are processed, modified,
sorted and repackaged into new vesicles
during their travel in the Golgi appatarus.
These vesicles bud off from the Golgi
apparatus and travel to other parts of the
cell or to plasma membrane to be
released to the outside of the cell.

The sequence of events illustrate how

each cellular component carries out its
function in an orderly manner.
The cells as a whole will not be able to
function properly if any of its cellular
components loses its ability to function
All the system of an organism are able
to funtion efficiently because the cellular
components of cells work together and
cooperate harmoniously with one another.