Filters

© All Rights Reserved

7 views

Filters

© All Rights Reserved

- Electrical Power Systems Electrical Power Engineering Power Systems
- Dsp Processors and Architectures
- B.Sc-IT IV Sem
- Extc Sem Viiipaper
- 307105405-Laplace-Transform.pdf
- Filters- Comm Sys
- ad7718 an
- DSPMID2
- 10.1.1.151
- Prelim Optional Electrical Engineering
- Sem 2
- DSP 6 - FIR Filter Design
- DSP IIR BZT
- Design of Digital Filters
- chapter 2
- Pulse Doppler Radar Report
- Linear time variant
- 10.1.1.84.6334
- Digital Filter Design 0
- Uwe meyer baese presentation report

You are on page 1of 62

Structures

Singapuri Harikrishna M.

ECED, SVNIT, Surat

The input-output relation involves a

finite sum of products:

y[n] k 1 ak y[n k ] k 0 bk x[n k ]

N

In terms of Z transform,

M

H ( z)

k

b

z

k

k 0

N

1 ak z k

k 1

The major factors that affects or

influence realization are:

Complexity

Memory requirements

Finite Word Length

Complexity

Referred as The number of Arithmetic

Operations

Multiplications

Divisions

Additions

Complexity

Recent days, various measuring term is

used:

No. of programmable DSP chips

No. of times a data fetch from Memory

Memory Requirements

No. of Memory Locations Required to

store

System parameters

Past inputs

Past outputs

Intermediate values

The actual implementation of an LTI

digital filter can be either in software

or hardware form, depending on

applications.

In either case, the signal variables

and the filter coefficients cannot

represented with finite precision

A direct implementation of a filter based

on

Difference equation or

Finite convolution sum

due to the finite precision arithmetic

Interest to develop alternate realizations

and choose the structure that

provides satisfactory performance under finite

precision arithmetic

A

structural

representation

using

interconnected basic building blocks is

the first step in the hardware or

software implementation of an LTI

digital filter

The structural representation provides

the key relations between some

pertinent internal variables with the

input and output that in turn provides

the key to the implementation

The computational algorithm of an

LTI

digital

filter

can

be

conveniently represented in block

diagram form using the basic

A

building

blocks

shown

below

y[n]

x[n]

y[n]

x[n]

w[n]

Multiplier

Adder

x[n]

z 1

Unit delay

x[n]

x[n]

y[n]

x[n]

Pick-off node

The convolution sum description of

an LTI discrete-time system can be

used, in principle, to implement the

system

For an IIR finite-dimensional system,

this approach is not practical as here

the impulse response is of infinite

length

However, a direct implementation of

In the time domain, the input-output

relations of an LTI digital filter is given

by the convolution

sum

or, by the linear constant coefficient

difference equation

y[n]

N

k 1 d k y[ n k ]

M

k 0 pk x[ n k ]

For the implementation of an LTI digital

filter, the input-output relationship must

be described by a valid computational

algorithm

To illustrate what we mean by a

computational algorithm, consider the

causal first-order LTI digital filter shown

below

The filter is described by the

difference equation

y[n] d1 y[n 1] p0 x[n] p1x[n 1]

Using the above equation we can

compute

knowing the

n 0y[n] for

n 1and the

yinitial

[1] condition

input x[n] for

:

Advantages of block diagram representation

Easy to write down the computational Algorithm

by inspection

Easy to analyze the block diagram to determine

the explicit relation between the output and input

H/W requirements can easily determined

Variety of Representations can be developed

based on transfer function

Easy to manipulate a block diagram to derive

other equivalent block diagrams yielding

different computational algorithms

There are basically two types of

Filters used:

Finite Impulse Response (FIR) Filter

Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) Filter

In the time-domain the input-output

relation of the above FIR filter is

M 1

given by

y (n) h(k ) x ( n k )

k 0

1

characterized Mby

a transfer

function

n

H ( z ) h( n) z

H(z) given by n 0

-1

The unit sample response of the FIR

system is identical to the coefficients

{bk},

0 n M 1

bn ,

h( n)

otherwise

0,

Various types of forma available for

system realizations are;

Direct Form

Cascade Form

Lattice Form

Linear Phase Form

Poly Phase Form

An FIR filter of order N is

characterized by

N+1 coefficients

and, in general, require

N+1

multipliers and N two-input adders

Structures in which the multiplier

coefficients

are

precisely

the

coefficients of the transfer function

are called direct form structures

A direct form realization of an FIR

filter can be readily developed from

the convolution sum description as

indicated below for N = 4

The direct form structure shown on

the previous slide is also known as a

tapped delay line or a transversal

filter

The transpose of the direct form

structure shown earlier is indicated

below

canonic with respect to delays

Structures

A higher-order FIR transfer function can also

be realized as a cascade of second-order

FIR sections and possibly a first-order

section

To this endMwe

express H(z) as

/2

H ( z ) ( 0 k 1k z 1 2 k z 2 )

k 1

Where M is even, 2k = 0

H(z) has odd number of real roots

below

structure can also be realized in the

transposed direct form

The symmetry (or ant-symmetry)

property of a linear-phase FIR filter

can be exploited to reduce the

number of multipliers into almost

half of that in the direct form

implementations

Consider a length-7 Type 1 FIR

1

2

3

H ( z ) h[0function

] h[1]z with

h[2]z a symmetric

h[3]z

transfer

impulse hresponse:

[2]z 4 h[1]z 5 h[0]z 6

Rewriting H(z) in the form

6

1

5

H ( z ) h[0](1 z ) h[1]( z z )

2

4

3

h[2]( z z ) h[3]z

we obtain the realization shown

below

A similar decomposition can be applied

to a Type 2 FIR transfer function

For example, a length-8 Type 2 FIR

transfer function can be expressed as

H ( z ) h[0](1 z

h[2]( z

) h[1]( z

5

z ) h[3]( z

z

3

on the next slide

Note:

The Type 1 linear-phase structure for

a length-7 FIR filter requires 4

multipliers, whereas a direct form

realization requires 7 multipliers

Note:

The Type 2 linear-phase structure for

a length-8 FIR filter requires 4

multipliers, whereas a direct form

realization requires 8 multipliers

Similar savings occurs in the

realization of Type 3 and Type 4

linear-phase FIR filters with

antisymmetric impulse responses

Lattice Structures

Used extensively in

Digital speech processing

Implementation of adaptive Filters

with system

H m ( z ) Am ( z ), m 0,1,2,..., M 1

Where

Am ( z ) 1 m (k ) z k ,

and A0(z)=1.

k 1

m 1

Lattice Structures

Lattice Structures

The causal IIR digital filters we are concerned with in

this course are characterized by a real rational transfer

function of z-1 or, equivalently by a constant coefficient

difference equation.

From the difference equation representation, it can be

seen that the realization of the causal IIR digital filters

requires some form of feedback.

Various kind of system realization

are:

Direct Form-I Structures

Direct-Form-II Structures

Signal Flow graph and Transposed

Structure

Cascade Form Structure

Parallel Form Structure

Lattice and Lattice Adder Structure

Structures

An N-th order IIR digital transfer function is

characterized by 2N+1 unique coefficients,

and in general, requires 2N+1 multipliers

and 2N two-input adders for implementation

Direct form IIR filters: Filter structures in

which the multiplier coefficients are

precisely the coefficients of the transfer

function

Structures

Consider for simplicity a 3rd-order IIR filter

with a transfer function

filter sections as shown on the next slide

Structures

X

(z)

where

W

H1 ( z ) ( z )

H 2( z )

Y

(z)

Structures

The filter section H ( z) can be seen to be

1

an FIR filter and can be realized as shown

below

Structures

The time-domain representation of H ( z) is

2

given by

Realization of H 2

( z)

follows from the

above equation

and is shown on

Direct form I

Direct form II

Direct Form-I

Direct FormII

Multiplication

M+N+1

M+N+1

Addition

M+N

M+N

Memory

Locations

M+N+1

Max {M,N}

Note:

Direct-Form II reduces the memory requirements but not

used in practical applications.

Cascade Structures

Consider Transfer Function :

by different pole-zero polynomial pairings.

Usually, the polynomials are factored into a product of firstorder and second-order polynomials.

e.g. :

(1 1k z 1 2 k z 2 )

H ( z ) p[0]

,

1

2

k (1 1k z 2 k z )

Cascade Realization

Parallel Structure

Making use of the partial-fraction

expansion of the transfer function:

H ( z)

k

Qk ( z )

Dk ( z )

Parallel Structure

Parallel Structure

Transposed Structure

Lattice-ladder structure

for the realization of a

pole-zero system

y[0] d1 y[1] p0 x[0] p1x[1]

y[1] d1 y[0] .p0 x[1] p1x[0]

..

y[2] . d1 y[1] p0 x[2] p1x[1]

..

We can continue this calculation for

any value of the time index n we

desire

Each step of the calculation

requires a knowledge of the

previously calculated value of the

output sample (delayed value of

the output), the present value of

the input sample, and the previous

value of the input sample (delayed

value of the input)

As a result, the first-order

difference equation can be

The polyphase decomposition of H(z)

leads to a parallel form structure

To illustrate this approach, consider a

causal FIR transfer function H(z) with

N = 8:

H ( z ) h[0] h[1]z 1 h[2]z 2 h[3]z 3 h[4]z 4

h[5]z 5 h[6]z 6 h[7]z 7 h[8]z 8

H(z) can be expressed as a sum of

two terms, with one term

containing the even-indexed

coefficients and the other

2 odd-indexed

4

6

8

containing

the

H ( z ) (h[0] h[2]z h[4]z h[6]z h[8]z )

coefficients:

(h[1]z 1 h[3]z 3 h[5]z 5 h[7]z 7 )

2

1

2

4

6

z (h[1] h[3]z h[5]z h[7]z )

By using the notation

1

1

2

3

E1( z ) h[1] h[3]z h[5]z h[7]z

we can express H(z) as

2

H ( z ) E0 ( z ) z E1( z )

In a similar manner, by grouping the

terms in the original expression for

H(z), we can reexpress it in the form

3

1

3

2

3

H ( z ) E0 ( z ) z E1( z ) z E2 ( z )

where now

1

E1( z ) h[1] h[4]z 1 h[7]z 2

1

2

E2 ( z ) h[2] h[5]z h[8]z

The decomposition of H(z) in the

form H ( z ) E ( z 2 ) z 1E ( z 2 )

0

or H ( z ) E0 ( z 3 ) z 1E1( z 3 ) z 2 E2 ( z 3 )

is more commonly known as the

polyphase decomposition

In the general case, an L-branch

polyphase decomposition of an FIR

transfer function of order N is of the

form H ( z ) L 1 z m Em ( z L )

m 0

where

Em ( z )

( N 1) / L

n 0

h[ Ln m]z

Figures below show the 4-branch,

3-branch, and 2-branch

polyphase realization of a

transfer function H(z)

for

the

(z

)

m

polyphase components

are

L

The subfilters

in the

Em ( z )

polyphase realization of an FIR

transfer function are also FIR filters

and can be realized using any

methods described so far

However, to obtain a canonic

realization of the overall structure,

the delays in all subfilters must be

shared

Figure below shows a canonic

realization of a length-9 FIR

transfer function obtained using

delay sharing

- Electrical Power Systems Electrical Power Engineering Power SystemsUploaded byHariprasath Selvakumar
- Dsp Processors and ArchitecturesUploaded byK S Rajasekhar
- B.Sc-IT IV SemUploaded byapi-3705029
- Extc Sem ViiipaperUploaded byHitesh Chavan
- 307105405-Laplace-Transform.pdfUploaded byPrateekBansal
- Filters- Comm SysUploaded byPrachee Sharma
- ad7718 anUploaded byvanakaarisan
- DSPMID2Uploaded byA.m. Harashankar
- 10.1.1.151Uploaded byVedharaman VJ
- Prelim Optional Electrical EngineeringUploaded bybambernitin
- Sem 2Uploaded byAjay Katageri
- DSP 6 - FIR Filter DesignUploaded byJehan Zeb Bhatti
- DSP IIR BZTUploaded byMaaz Myzx
- Design of Digital FiltersUploaded bycakunza
- chapter 2Uploaded byPatrick Hawkins
- Pulse Doppler Radar ReportUploaded byDinesh Shetty
- Linear time variantUploaded byindameantime
- 10.1.1.84.6334Uploaded bypinhe2
- Digital Filter Design 0Uploaded byvidaljunior
- Uwe meyer baese presentation reportUploaded byvenkatsat
- DgtlFltrDsgnGdUploaded bycatia_v5r
- 00019130Uploaded byJohnSmith
- Widmann Schroeger Maess 2014 J of Neuroscience MethodsUploaded byaparajit5054
- Finite WordUploaded byArunmozhli
- dfhUploaded bycatsarefunny
- A Complete Simulation of Target Detection and EstiUploaded byShankarPrasai
- 1ppt (1)Uploaded bypunna pushpak
- DEVELOPMENT OF ADAPTIVE ALGORITHM FOR SPARSE SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION.Uploaded byIJAR Journal
- 101801-6262 IJECS-IJENSUploaded bysimon alex
- intermag_4-6Uploaded byChrstian Delgado

- Turnitin _ HelpdeskUploaded byhari4singa
- 8051 Serial CommunicationUploaded byDrWhoF
- A Low Power Digital Phase Locked Loop With ROM-freUploaded byhari4singa
- Digital Phase-Locked Loop (DPLL) (Xilinx)Uploaded byOrdoMalleus
- Ada 2200Uploaded byhari4singa
- Xilinx UG230 Spartan-3E FPGA Starter Kit Board User GuideUploaded byMosu Misu
- LPCDUploaded byaliaomt
- s Johnson Ld Pc IntroUploaded byNhan Lk
- Attendance Sheet Session -IUploaded byhari4singa
- MCQ for DSPUploaded byhari4singa
- 12187 - MicrocontrollerUploaded byMrutyunjaya Sahani
- Tutorial 1Uploaded byhari4singa

- ReceiversUploaded byanc62
- Mixer Basics PrimerUploaded byd_ridz
- RepositoryUploaded byarefinhasib07
- Polynomial Approximation of 1D signalUploaded bypi194043
- VHDL Implementation of Multiplier Less High Performance DWT Filter Bank WCE2007Uploaded by_aquarius_
- GSMv0.2Uploaded bykamalkgarg
- e Ms-70cdr Fx-list v2Uploaded by石哲安
- Dynamic Range Compression - WikipediaUploaded byJulie Walter
- Data Communications and Networking (5th Edition) - Behrouz a. Forouzan Ch3Uploaded byMehar Usman
- Dsplab FftUploaded byEldine James Aragon
- Rock Crusher Ma ManualUploaded bywarriosoulm4
- ALC898 DataSheet 0.60Uploaded byaauni
- Wave Data Analysis for Wave Energy Power in Namae CoastUploaded byজাবির
- 10.1.1.152.3237Uploaded byJosh Santos
- 68-1339-01_SSP7p1_RevC_CombinedUploaded bysfhshsdt
- Local Laplacian Filters -- DetailedUploaded byDavid Sacco
- Rr310405 Digital CommunicationsUploaded bySrinivasa Rao G
- Dsp128 Plus CheatsheetUploaded bymidiquasi
- Noise source identification of diesel engine based on vacariational mode descomposition and robust independent component analysisUploaded byJean Carlos Pineda
- Automatic Control exercisesUploaded byFrancesco Vasturzo
- 53 36765 ME591 2012 1 1 1 Analog Signal ConditionningUploaded byAbhishek Kumbalur
- wavelet transformUploaded bymourya_neeraj
- Signal Processing for Intelligent Sensor Systems with MATLAB 2nd Edition.pdfUploaded bywijdijwij
- datasheetUploaded byNg Meried
- cauerUploaded byRain Ellorin
- Filtering of Noise Signals Using First Order Transfer FunctionsUploaded byshravankuma
- DT25 Power Amp ParametersUploaded bySergio Veloso
- application note 1279Uploaded bytongai
- DIP Lecture10Uploaded byRashmi Chaudhary
- DCT_5Uploaded bysyed02

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.