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- ORDUDE #5-The Simplex
- TRANSPORTATION PROBLEM
- Transportation Problem 1
- Transportation Problem
- Duality
- Transportation problem
- Transportation Problem
- Example for Solution of Transportation Problem
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- Operations Research

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PROBLEMS

TRANSPORTATION PROBLEM

the problem, which aims to find the best

way to fulfill the demand of n demand

points using the capacities of m supply

points. While trying to find the best way,

generally a variable cost of shipping the

product from one supply point to a demand

point or a similar constraint should be

taken into consideration.

General Description of a

Transportation Problem

EXAMPLE

A company has three production facilities S1,S2,

S3 with production capacity of 7, 9 and 18 units

(in 100s) per week of a product respectively.

These units are to be shipped to four warehouses

D1, D2, D3, D4 with requirement of 5, 6,7 and 14

units (in 100s) per week, respectively. The

transportation costs (in Rupees) per unit between

factories to warehouses are given in the table on

next slide.

TRANSPORTATION COST MATRIX

D1 D2 D3 D4 Supply Row

Penalty

S1 19 30 50 10 7 9

S2 70 30 40 60 9 10

S3 40 8 70 20 18 12

Demand 5 8 7 14 34

Column 21 22 10 10

Penalty

OPTIMIZATION OF TRANSPORTATION

PROBLEM

Phase 1

Calculating Basic

Solution

(Using VAM)

Step 1: From the Table we determine the penalty

(element – smallest in its row (column) ) for each

row and column.

D1 D2 D3 D4 Supply Row

Penalty

S1 19 30 50 10 7 9

S2 70 30 40 60 9 10

S3 40 8 70 20 18 12

Demand 5 8 7 14 34

Column 21 22 10 10

Penalty

Step 2:

Identify the row or column with the

largest penalty among all the rows

and columns. If the penalties

corresponding to two or more rows or

columns are equal we select the

topmost row and the extreme left

column.

Step 3: Select Xij as a basic variable if Cij is the minimum cost

in the row or column with largest penalty. Choose Xij as high as

possible. Eliminate ith row or jth column depending upon

whether ai or bj is the smaller of the two.

D1 D2 D3 D4 Supply Row

Penalty

S1 19 30 50 10 7 9

S2 70 30 40 60 9 10

S3 40 8 70 20 10 12

Demand 5 8 7 14 34

Column 21 22 10 10

Penalty

Step 4: The step (ii) is now performed on the reduced matrix

until all the basic variables have been identified.

D1 D2 D3 D4 Supply Row

Penalty

S1 19 30 50 10 7 9

S2 70 30 40 60 9 20

S3 40 8 70 20 10 20

Demand 5 8 7 14 34

Column 21 22 10 10

Penalty

D1 D2 D3 D4 Supply Row

Penalty

S1 19 30 50 10 2 9

S2 70 30 40 60 9 20

S3 40 8 70 20 10 20

Demand 5 8 7 14 34

Column 21 22 10 10

Penalty

D1 D2 D3 D4 Supply Row

Penalty

S1 19 30 50 10 2 40

S2 70 30 40 60 9 20

S3 40 8 70 20 10 50

Demand 5 8 7 14 34

Column 21 22 10 10

Penalty

D1 D2 D3 D4 Supply Row

Penalty

S1 19 30 50 10 2 40

S2 70 30 40 60 9 20

S3 40 8 70 20 0 50

Demand 5 8 7 4 34

Column 21 22 10 10

Penalty

D1 D2 D3 D4 Supply Row

Penalty

S1 19 30 50 10 2 40

S2 70 30 40 60 9 20

S3 40 8 70 20 0 50

Demand 5 8 7 4 34

Column 21 22 10 50

Penalty

D1 D2 D3 D4 Supply Row

Penalty

S1 19 30 50 10 0 40

S2 70 30 40 60 9 20

S3 40 8 70 20 0 50

Demand 5 8 7 2 34

Column 21 22 10 50

Penalty

D1 D2 D3 D4 Supply Row

Penalty

S1 19 30 50 10 0 40

S2 70 30 40 60 7 20

S3 40 8 70 20 0 50

Demand 5 8 7 0 34

Column 21 22 40 50

Penalty

D1 D2 D3 D4 Supply Row

Penalty

S1 19 30 50 10 0 40

S2 70 30 40 60 0 20

S3 40 8 70 20 0 50

Demand 5 8 7 0 34

Column 21 22 40 50

Penalty

Phase 2

Calculating Optimal

Solution

MODIFIED DISTRIBUTION (MODI or u-v) METHOD

Step 1

Introduce dual variables corresponding to the row and

column constraints.

Eg. u1+v1=c11 = 19

D1 D2 D3 D4 Supply Row Constraints

S1 19 30 50 10 7 U1

S2 70 30 40 60 9 U2

S3 40 8 70 20 18 U3

Demand 5 8 7 14 34 U4

Column v1 v2 v3 v4

Constraints

Equations

Step 2: Any basic feasible solution of the

transportation problem has m + n – 1; Xjj >0.

Thus there will be m + n - 1 equations to

determine m + n dual variables. One of the dual

variables can be chosen arbitrarily. It is to be also

noted that as the primal constraints are

equations, the dual variables are unrestricted in

sign.

u3=20 v1=9

u2=60 v3=-20

u1=10 v2=-12

ij

are compared with the Cij values of this allocation

as: Cij – Ui - Vj .

complementary slackness theorem it can be

shown that the corresponding solution of the

transportation problem is optimum. If one or more

of Cij – Ui - Vj < 0, we choose the cell with least

value of Cij – Ui - Vj and allocate as much as

possible subject to the row and the column

constraints. The allocation of a number of adjacent

cell are adjusted so that a basic variable becomes

non basic.

Basic Allocation

D1 D2 D3 D4 Supply Row Constraints

S1 5 2 7

S2 7 2 9

S3 8 10 18

Demand 5 8 7 14 34

Column

Constraints

Negative Value indicates that there is a possibility of

cost reduction by assigning to this cell.

S1 +32 +60 7 10

S2 +1 -18 9 60

S3 +11 +70 18 20

Demand 5 8 7 14 34

Constraints

Re-Allocation

D1 D2 D3 D4 Supply Row Constraints

S1 5 2 7

S2 7 2 9

(+) (-)

S3 8(-) 10 18

(+)

Demand 5 8 7 14 34

Column

Constraints

RE-ALLOCATION

S1 5 2 7 u1

S2 2 7 9 u2

S3 6 12 18 u3

Demand 5 8 7 14 34

Column v1 v2 v3 v4

Constraints

Step 4

A fresh set of dual variables

are computed and entire

procedure is repeated.

D1 D2 D3 D4 Supply Row Constraints

S1 19 30 50 10 7 U1

S2 70 30 40 60 9 U2

S3 40 8 70 20 18 U3

Demand 5 8 7 14 34 U4

Column v1 v2 v3 v4

Constraints

U1+v1=19 u1+v4=10

u2+v2=30 u2+v3=40

u3+v2=8 u3+v4=20

Putting u1=0 : v1=19,v2=-2,v3=8, v4=10, u2=32, u3=10

All positive values indicate that no further reduction

in cost is possible. Hence it is optimal solution.

S1 +32 +42 7 0

S2 +19 +14 9 32

S3 +11 +52 18 10

Demand 5 8 7 14 34

Column 19 -2 8 10

Constraints

Optimal Solution

S1 19 30 50 10 7 U1

S2 70 30 40 60 9 U2

S3 40 8 70 20 18 U3

Demand 5 8 7 14 34 U4

Column v1 v2 v3 v4

Constraints

Unbalanced Problem

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