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Definition of leadership
• The ability to exert interpersonal influence
by means of communication towards the
achievement goal.
• Leadership is the activity of influencing
people to strive willingly for group
Nature of leadership
• There must be a group
• Leadership is a personal quality
• A leader influences his followers and is
also influenced by his followers.
• Leadership is a shared function that is
credits,blames,ideas and opinions.
• Leadership guides a group and the
Importance of leadership
• Motivating employees: it is necessary for higher
work performance ,better performance
• Creating confidence: confidence is created by
directing them ,giving them advice and getting
good results in the organization.
• Building morale: it is expressed as attitudes of
employees ,management and co-operation.
Leadership and management
• Leaders have no formal • Managers have formal
authority. authority.
• Leader perform with • A manager has to
the maximum use of perform all the five
subordinates. activities.
• Leader take decision • Management takes
on moods and rational decisions.
expectations of the • Management
followers. establishes relationship
• Leaders establish through legitimate
relationship through power.
Autocratic or authoritarian style

Complete centralization of authority that is authority is

centered in the leader himself.
Leader adopt negative method of motivation.
No participation from the subordinates in decision
Leader wants immediate obedience of his orders and
Leadership may be negative because followers are
insecure and afraid of leader’s authority.
There are three categories of autocratic leaders.

• Strict autocrat: autocrat style is very strict,

influences subordinates behavior through negative
• Benevolent autocrat: centralizes decision making
power in leaders but with positive motivation style.
• Incompetent autocrat: sometimes superiors use
autocrat style in order to hide their in competency.
Advantages and disadvantages
Provides strong motivation
Quick decision making because decision is made
by single person.
Less competent sub managers can be used only
to carry out the orders of the boss.
Decision making, planning need not be initiative

• Since motivational style is negative people dislike.

• Frustration, low morale and conflict develops
Democratic or participative leadership

• Powers and authority are decentralized .

• Members are allowed participate in decision
• The leader delegates the work to the members.
• In this style of leadership members have a
confidence and they have job satisfaction.
• Exchange of ideas among subordinates with the
leader is encouraged.
Advantages and disadvantages
Members feel satisfied in decision making
Workers are aware of what is going on in the
Subordinates get opportunity to utilize their
Since power is no centralized only consulting with
the subordinates is allowed.
Decision making and implementation is delayed.
Laissez-faire or free rein style

• Virtual absence of direct leadership it is there fore

also known as “no leadership at all”.
• Complete delegation of authority to subordinates.
• Absence of leadership sometimes may cause
negative and positive effect.
Advantages and disadvantages

• This type of leadership may be effective if the

members are committed.
• Members train themselves and provide self
• This type of leadership fails to provide the benefits
of leader sometimes it creates chaos.
Trait theory
• personal, psychological and physical traits among
strong leaders is studied.
• Following assumptions helps in differentiating
among leaders from non leaders.
• For example : self confidence,initiative,height and
understanding of interpersonal human relations.
• Individuals those who posses the above qualities
will be considered as potential leaders.
Implications :
 The theory emphasis that a leader requires some
traits and qualities to be effective in all situations.
 Many of these qualities may be developed in
individuals through training and development.
Charismatic leadership theory
• Also called great man theory
• Charismatic leaders are those who inspire
followers and have a major impact on their
• According to Robert house “charismatic leaders
are the leaders who have high level of self
confidence, and have strong conviction”.
• Charismatic leaders communicate a vision or
higher level goal that captures the commitment
and energy of followers.

Great leaders have some exceptional in born

qualities which are bestowed upon them by divine
These inborn qualities are sufficient for a leader to
be successful.
These qualities are not enhanced through
These leadership qualities make a leader effective
Behavioral theory
• It emphasis that strong leadership is the result of
effective role behavior.
• Researcher say that a group need some one who
possess the following qualities.
• They are task related function or problem solving
function and group maintenance function or social
• Leadership behavior may be viewed in two ways,
functional behavior-which influences the followers
positively and dysfunctional behavior-denotes
ineffective leadership.
Implications of the theory

• Behavioral theory can shape the behavior of

managers and discard dysfunctional.
• Researcher prescribed that various leadership
styles can be applied in managing the people in
the organization.
Contingency theory or situational theory

• Situational leadership was applied in 1920 in the armed forces of

• The prime attention was given to the situation where the leadership
is exercised.
• Effectiveness of leadership is effected by the factors associated with
the leader and with the situation.
• Factors which affects leadership effectiveness are ,
1) Leadership behavior:
 Leaders characteristics
 Leaders hierarchical position.
2) Situational factors:
 Subordinate characteristics
 Leaders situation
 Group and organizational factors.
Fiedler’s contingency model
• Fiedler’s contingency model of leadership has the basic
contention that the appropriateness of leadership styles depends
on their matching with situational requirements.
• Fiedler’s model consist of three elements:
o Leadership styles
o Situational variables
o Interrelationship
Implications :
No leadership style is appropriate for all situations.
There is a need for matching leaders and job situations to
achieve organizational effectiveness.