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NEWTONS 2st

Inertial property

force.This is called law of conservation of

momentum

Definition

Rate of change of momentum is

proportional to the applied external

imbalance force & takes place in

Linear Momentum

same as the direction of the velocity.

st LAW

NEWTONS 2st

then the total momentum of the system is

always conserved ( does not change

irrespective of collision & movement as of

The Definition will also mean

inner objects)

If there is no external force total linear

momentum of system is always conserved

Change in Momentum

Teddy Bear:

Dp = 0 - (- mv ) = mv

Question 1

y

x

A 10 kg cart collides

with a wall and

changes its direction.

What is its change in

x-momentum Dpx?

a. -30 kg m/s

b. -10 kg m/s

c. 10 kg m/s

d. 20 kg m/s

e. 30 kg m/s

If the net force acting on a system is zero,

then the total momentum of the system is

always conserved ( does not change

irrespective of collision & movement as of

inner objects)

A physical system that does not interact with its

surroundings.

No external imbalance force can act

Its total energy and mass stay constant. They

cannot enter or exit, but can only move around

inside.

Example of

isolated

system

Impulse of force ( I )

Impulse of force :

In physics, an impulse is defined as product

of force & time for which the force acts

When a force is applied to a rigid body it

changes the momentum of that body.

A small force applied for a long time can

produce the same momentum change as a

large force applied briefly

Hence it is the product of the force and the

time for which it is applied that is important.

The impulse is equal to the change of

momentum. W

Understanding Impulse :

Let force F act on object for t secs

= change in velocity due to F in time t in time

impulse.

But the quantity mv is change in

momentum,

Hence Impulse = Change in momentum

Impulse

direction as the average force.

Constant force

I = F t = Area under F & .t curve

= movement of force

.t

= movement of force

A

Non

variable force force

r linear

r

Fmax

Microscopic view of a bounce.

Bat

Ball

Microscopic view

Microscopic view of a

bounce.

Force

r r

Definition of Impulse: I Fav t

r

r

I net p

r r

I Fav t area under F vs. t curve

video

A 150 g baseball is thrown

at a speed of 20 m/s. It is

hit straight back to the

boller at a speed of 40

m/s. The interaction force

is as shown here. What is

the maximum force Fmax

that the bat exerts on the

ball? What is the average

force Fav that the bat

0.006 sec

exerts on the ball?

Before

U = - 20m/sec

m = 0.15 kg

After

Change in movement

9.0 kg m/s

V = 40m/sec

= Area under force time curve

Force

Fmax

= Fmax 0.006

= F max 0.003

Now Impuls is 9.0 kg m/s

0.006

sec

px (9.0 kg m/s)

Fav =

=

1,500 N

t

(.006 s)

time

With an expert karate blow, you shatter a

concrete block. Consider that you hand has a

mass of 0.70 kg, is initially moving downward at

5.0 m/s, and stops 6.0 mm beyond the point of

contact.

1.What impulse does the block exert on your

hand?

2.What is the approximate collision time and

average force that the block exerts on your

hand?

Example: A Karate

Collision

0.7 kg

For hand

U = 5m/sec

V=0

S=0.006m

S = 0.006 m

Consider hand

.t = ?

movement

.t = impact time in sec

Average velocity of hand = 5/2 = 2.5m/sec

Hand movement = Average velocity of hand t

0.006m = 2.5m/sec t sec

.t = 0.006 m / 2.5 m/sec = 0.0024 sec

Solution: A Karate

Collision

Fmax

Force

FAvg

time

p = Change hand movement

= mass change in velocity

= 0.7 kg 5m/sec

= 3.5 kg m /sec

Average force = I / t

= 3.5 /0.0024

= 1458 N

Leaner Collision

Moving objects

Gun bullet

Explosion etc

Collision of objects

Reaction Action

-F

F

Action & reaction are contact forces

Time for which they are active is same

Impulse produced by them is equal &

apposite

Change in movement of both balls is equal

but apposite

Thus net change in movement is zero

Hence total momentum before collision will be

collisions

Same mass

Heavier to

lighter

lighter to

Heavier

Three

balls

Leaner collisions

V1

Leaner collisions

Elastic collision: Both momentum

and kinetic energy are conserved.

Inelastic collision: momentum is

conserved but kinetic energy is not

conserved.

Inelastic collision

Inelastic

Collisions

Inelastic collision: momentum is conserved

but kinetic energy is not: pf = pi but Kf Ki.

Completely inelastic collision: objects stick

together afterwards: pf = pi1 + pi2

As kinetic energy is not conserved there is

energy loss in collision by many ways

Sound produced

Permanent Deformation of objects

Friction etc

u1

u2

m1

m2

V

m1+ m2

Inelastic Collisions

Solving for the final momentum in terms of

the initial momenta and masses:

u1

u2

Example 1

Solution to example 1

Vi

0.12 cm/sec

+ve

momentum of system is = 0

In second case movement of system

= ( wwood /g x Vwood ) + ( winsect /g x Vinsect )

As momentum is conserved, total movement =

0

( wwood x Vwood ) + ( winsect x Vinsect ) = 0

w

x V

)=(w

xV

)--(g cancelled)

Example 2

A car crashes into a wall at velocity 25 m/s

and is brought to rest in 0.1 s. Calculate the

average force exerted on a 75 kg mass test

dummy by the seat belt. Also calculate

dummies average acceleration

dummy and forget the car.

initial velocity of dummy v0 = 25 m/s)

Mass of dummy (m0 = 75 kg)

Dummys original momentum = P0

P 0 = m 0 v0

P0 = (75 kg) (25 m/s)

P0 = 1875 (kg m)/s

Dummys final momentum = Pf

P f = m f vf

Pf = (75 kg) (0 m/s) = 0

Pf = 0

Let F = seat belt force on dummy

Change in dummys momentum = 1875 kg m/s.

Now when an object interacts with other object it

experiences an impulse

= Average force x time for which force acts

The same is = Change in objects momentum

F x 0.1 = - 1875

F = - 18750 ( kg m) / s2

F = - 18750 ( kg m) / s2

time of 0.1 s.

v = acceleration time

acceleration = V / time

acceleration =25 m/s/0.1 s

acceleration = 250 m/s2 = 25 g

Example 3

Judy (mass 40.0 kg), standing on slippery

ice, catches her leaping dog, Atti (mass 15

kg), moving horizontally at 3.0 m/s. what is

the speed of Judy and her dog after the

catch

3m/sec

40 kg

(b) After Judy catches her dog

15

kg

3m/sec

40 kg

Vf

15

kg

Po =Initial momentum

= 40 x 0 + 15 x 3

= 45 kg m /sec

Pf = (15+ 40 )x Vf

= 55 Vf kg m /sec

Po = PF (Conservation law

Vf = 45/55 = 0.818m/sec

mass m horizontally with velocity Vb. What is

the recoil velocity of the cannon?

( Mass of cannon>> mass of cannon ball)

Force exerted by the cannon on the cannon

ball, as the cannon is fired,

Equal and opposite reaction force exerted by

the cannonball on the cannon

These forces are extremely large, but act only

for a short instance in time, we call these

impulsive forces.

There are no external horizontal forces acting in

horizontal direction under consideration.

system is a conserved

Prior to the firing of the cannon, the total

momentum is zero ( nothing is initially moving)

After the cannon is fired, the total momentum of

the system takes the form

system is a conserved

Prior to the firing of the cannon, the total

momentum is zero (since momentum is mass

times velocity, and nothing is initially moving).

After the cannon is fired, the total momentum

of the system =

Elastic Collisions

momentum are conserved.

Final momentum = initial momentum

Final Kinetic energy = initial kinetic energy

Conventio

(nSubscript 1 = Initial parameters before collision)

( Subscript 2 = Final parameters before collision)

Initial velocity

Initial velocity

U1

U2U2

Before

collision

After

collision

V1

V2

so small that its mass can be assumed to

exist at one point), or a non-rotating rigid body,

is given by the equation

energy of an 80 kg mass traveling at 18

meters per second (40 mph) as

Initial momentum

u1

u2

u2

u1

v2

v1

u1

u2 =

Final momentum

Initial KE

u1

u2

1

1

2

m2 u22

m1 u 1 +

2

v1

v2

Final KE

1

m1 v21

2

1

m1 u21

2

1

1

2

m1 v21

m2 u 2 =

2

2

+

+

1

m2 v22

2

1

m2 v22

2

uu1 1

uu2 2

vv1 1

vv2 2

(m1 - m2) u1

2m2u2

+

V1 =

(m1+ m2)

(m1+ m2)

2m1u1

(m2 m1) u2

+

V2 =

(m1+ m2)

( m 1+ m 2)

A 4.0 kg block moving to the right at 6.0 m/s

undergoes an elastic head-on collision with a

2.0 kg block moving to the right at 3.0 m/s.

Find their final velocities.

m1 = 4 kg

m2 = 2 kg

Solution :Elastic

Collision of Two Blocks

:

m2 = 2 kg

m1 = 4 kg

V1 ?

(m1 - m2) u1

2m2u2

+

V1 =

(m1+ m2)

(m1+ m2)

(4 - 2) 6

V1 =

+

(4 + 2)

2 2 3

(4 + 2)

V1 = (2 + 2) = 4m/sec

V2 ?

Solution :Elastic

Collision of Two Blocks

:

m2 = 2 kg

m1 = 4 kg

V1 ?

2m1u1

(m2 m1) u2

+

V2 =

(m1+ m2)

( m 1+ m 2)

(2 - 4) 3

V2 =

+

(4 + 2)

2 4 6

(4 + 2)

V2 = ( -1 + 8 ) = 7 m/sec

V2 ?

stationary ball with different

weights

m2

m1

m1 = m 2

m1 > m 2

m1 < m 2

Solid wall

Before collision: u2= 0 (Stationary)

u1

(m1 - m2) u1

2m2u2

+

V1 =

(m1+ m2)

(m1+ m2)

V1 =

(0) u1

(m1+ m2)

2m2 (0)

+

(m1+ m2)

2m1u1

(m2 m1) u2

+

V2 =

(m1+ m2)

( m1+ m2)

V1 = 0

V2 = U 1

As m1=m2

(m1 - m2) u1

2m2u2

+

V1 =

(m1+ m2)

(m1+ m2)

V1 = 0

2m1u1

(m2 m1) u2

+

V2 =

(m1+ m2)

( m1+ m2)

V2 = U 1

(m1 - m2) u1

2m2u2

+

V1 =

(m1+ m2)

(m1+ m2)

2m1u1

(m2 m1) u2

+

V2 =

(m1+ m2)

( m1+ m2)

V1 is + ve= 0

V2 is + ve

(m1 - m2) u1

2m2u2

+

V1 =

(m1+ m2)

(m1+ m2)

2m1u1

(m2 m1) u2

+

V2 =

(m1+ m2)

( m1+ m2)

V1 is - ve= 0

V2 is + ve

(m1 - m2) u1

2m2u2

+

V1 =

(m1+ m2)

(m1+ m2)

2m1u1

(m2 m1) u2

+

V2 =

(m1+ m2)

( m1+ m2)

V1 is - ve= 0

V2 is + ve

Elastic collision against wall

(m1 - m2) u1

2m2u2

+

V1 =

(m1+ m2)

(m1+ m2)

V1 =

(- ) u1

+

()

2m2u2

()

2m1u1

(m2 m1) u2

+

V2 =

(m1+ m2)

( m1+ m2)

2m1u1

()x 0

+

V2 =

()

()

V1 = - u1

V2 = 0

End

10 g bullet is fired

from a 3.0 kg rifle

with a speed of 500

m/s. Find recoil

speed of rifle?

Pfx mB (v fx ) bullet + mR (v fx ) rifle Pix 0

(v fx ) rifle

mB

(v fx ) bullet

mR

(0.010 kg)

(3.0 kg)

to repair a satellite. He asked for a repair

manual. You throw it to him at a speed of 4.0

m/s relative to the spacecraft. He is at rest when

he catches the 3.0 kg book.Calculate

1.His velocity just after he catches the book.

2.Initial and final KE of book-astronaut system.

3.Impulse exerted by the book on the astronaut.

(b) initial and final kinetic energies of the

book-astronaut system.

(c) impulse exerted by the book on the

astronaut.

mB

(3.0 kg)

v f vBi

(4.0 m/s)

0.190 m/s

mB mA

(3.0 kg) (60.0 kg)

1

2

1

2

2

B Bi

1

(

2

2

f

1

2

important point :

isolated systems are not equivalent to closed

systems.

Closed systems cannot exchange matter with

the surroundings, but can exchange energy

Isolated systems can exchange neither matter

nor energy with their surroundings,

Inelastic Collisions in 1D

m1v1 f m2 v2 f m1v1i m2v2i

Inelastic collision: v1 f v2 f vcm

Psys p1i m1v1i

2

Psys2

Psys2

p

K mv

, so K i

and K f

2m

2m1

2(m1 m2 )

1

2

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