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st LAW

NEWTONS 2st
Inertial property

Momentum P = Mass Velocity = mv

P does not change if there is no external


force.This is called law of conservation of
momentum

Definition
Rate of change of momentum is
proportional to the applied external
imbalance force & takes place in

Linear Momentum

Momentum is a vector; its direction is the


same as the direction of the velocity.

st LAW
NEWTONS 2st

If the net force acting on a system is zero,


then the total momentum of the system is
always conserved ( does not change
irrespective of collision & movement as of
The Definition will also mean
inner objects)
If there is no external force total linear
momentum of system is always conserved

Change in Momentum

Change in momentum: Dp = pafter - pbefore


Teddy Bear:

Dp = 0 - (- mv ) = mv

Bouncing Ball: Dp = mv - ( -mv ) = 2mv

Question 1

y
x

A 10 kg cart collides
with a wall and
changes its direction.
What is its change in
x-momentum Dpx?
a. -30 kg m/s
b. -10 kg m/s
c. 10 kg m/s
d. 20 kg m/s
e. 30 kg m/s

Law of Conservation of Linear Momentum


If the net force acting on a system is zero,
then the total momentum of the system is
always conserved ( does not change
irrespective of collision & movement as of
inner objects)

In sciences isolated system means


A physical system that does not interact with its
surroundings.
No external imbalance force can act
Its total energy and mass stay constant. They
cannot enter or exit, but can only move around
inside.
Example of
isolated
system

Impulse of force ( I )

Impulse of force :
In physics, an impulse is defined as product
of force & time for which the force acts
When a force is applied to a rigid body it
changes the momentum of that body.
A small force applied for a long time can
produce the same momentum change as a
large force applied briefly
Hence it is the product of the force and the
time for which it is applied that is important.
The impulse is equal to the change of
momentum. W

Understanding Impulse :
Let force F act on object for t secs
= change in velocity due to F in time t in time

The quantity Force x time is known as


impulse.
But the quantity mv is change in
momentum,
Hence Impulse = Change in momentum

Impulse

Impulse is a vector, in the same


direction as the average force.

Constant force
I = F t = Area under F & .t curve
= movement of force

.t

Leaner variable force force

I = Fmax t = Area of ABC under F & t cu


= movement of force
A

Non
variable force force
r linear
r

I Fav t area under F vs. t curve


Fmax

Momentum and Impulse in collision


Microscopic view of a bounce.

Bat

Ball

Microscopic view

Momentum and Impulse

Microscopic view of a
bounce.

Profile of the force during a collision.

Impulse and Average


Force

r r
Definition of Impulse: I Fav t

r
r
I net p

r r
I Fav t area under F vs. t curve

Rigid ball & soft ball actual high speed


video

Example: Hitting a Baseball (1)


A 150 g baseball is thrown
at a speed of 20 m/s. It is
hit straight back to the
boller at a speed of 40
m/s. The interaction force
is as shown here. What is
the maximum force Fmax
that the bat exerts on the
ball? What is the average
force Fav that the bat
0.006 sec
exerts on the ball?

Before
U = - 20m/sec
m = 0.15 kg
After

Change in movement

(0.15 kg) (40 m/s + 20 m/s)


9.0 kg m/s

V = 40m/sec

Impulse = Change in movement


= Area under force time curve

Force

Fmax

= Fmax 0.006
= F max 0.003
Now Impuls is 9.0 kg m/s

0.006
sec

px (9.0 kg m/s)
Fav =
=
1,500 N
t
(.006 s)

time

Example: A Karate Collision


With an expert karate blow, you shatter a
concrete block. Consider that you hand has a
mass of 0.70 kg, is initially moving downward at
5.0 m/s, and stops 6.0 mm beyond the point of
contact.
1.What impulse does the block exert on your
hand?
2.What is the approximate collision time and
average force that the block exerts on your
hand?

Example: A Karate
Collision

0.7 kg

For hand
U = 5m/sec
V=0
S=0.006m
S = 0.006 m
Consider hand
.t = ?
movement
.t = impact time in sec
Average velocity of hand = 5/2 = 2.5m/sec
Hand movement = Average velocity of hand t
0.006m = 2.5m/sec t sec
.t = 0.006 m / 2.5 m/sec = 0.0024 sec

Solution: A Karate
Collision
Fmax
Force

FAvg

time

Impulse due to hand = I


p = Change hand movement
= mass change in velocity
= 0.7 kg 5m/sec
= 3.5 kg m /sec
Average force = I / t
= 3.5 /0.0024
= 1458 N

Types of internal interactions


Leaner Collision
Moving objects
Gun bullet
Explosion etc

Collision of objects
Reaction Action
-F
F
Action & reaction are contact forces
Time for which they are active is same
Impulse produced by them is equal &
apposite
Change in movement of both balls is equal
but apposite
Thus net change in movement is zero
Hence total momentum before collision will be

Conservation laws are valid in all types of


collisions
Same mass
Heavier to
lighter
lighter to
Heavier
Three
balls

Leaner collisions

V1

Leaner collisions

There are two main types of collisions


Elastic collision: Both momentum
and kinetic energy are conserved.
Inelastic collision: momentum is
conserved but kinetic energy is not
conserved.

Inelastic collision

Inelastic

Collisions

Collision: two objects striking one another.


Inelastic collision: momentum is conserved
but kinetic energy is not: pf = pi but Kf Ki.
Completely inelastic collision: objects stick
together afterwards: pf = pi1 + pi2
As kinetic energy is not conserved there is
energy loss in collision by many ways
Sound produced
Permanent Deformation of objects
Friction etc

A completely inelastic collision:


u1
u2
m1

m2

V
m1+ m2

m1vu1,1i m2 vu2,2i (m1 m2 )v f

Inelastic Collisions
Solving for the final momentum in terms of
the initial momenta and masses:

u1

u2

Example 1

Solution to example 1

Consider insect & wood stick as isolated system


Vi

0.12 cm/sec
+ve

As both insect & wooden piece at at rest net


momentum of system is = 0
In second case movement of system
= ( wwood /g x Vwood ) + ( winsect /g x Vinsect )
As momentum is conserved, total movement =
0
( wwood x Vwood ) + ( winsect x Vinsect ) = 0
w

x V

)=(w

xV

)--(g cancelled)

Example 2
A car crashes into a wall at velocity 25 m/s
and is brought to rest in 0.1 s. Calculate the
average force exerted on a 75 kg mass test
dummy by the seat belt. Also calculate
dummies average acceleration

Visualizing the problem

We focus our attention on the


dummy and forget the car.
initial velocity of dummy v0 = 25 m/s)
Mass of dummy (m0 = 75 kg)
Dummys original momentum = P0
P 0 = m 0 v0
P0 = (75 kg) (25 m/s)
P0 = 1875 (kg m)/s
Dummys final momentum = Pf
P f = m f vf
Pf = (75 kg) (0 m/s) = 0

P0 = 1875 (kg m)/s 2


Pf = 0
Let F = seat belt force on dummy
Change in dummys momentum = 1875 kg m/s.
Now when an object interacts with other object it
experiences an impulse
= Average force x time for which force acts
The same is = Change in objects momentum
F x 0.1 = - 1875
F = - 18750 ( kg m) / s2

F = - 18750 ( kg m) / s2

Dummys velocity changed by 25 m/s (v), in a


time of 0.1 s.
v = acceleration time
acceleration = V / time
acceleration =25 m/s/0.1 s
acceleration = 250 m/s2 = 25 g

Example 3
Judy (mass 40.0 kg), standing on slippery
ice, catches her leaping dog, Atti (mass 15
kg), moving horizontally at 3.0 m/s. what is
the speed of Judy and her dog after the
catch

(a) Before Judy catches her dog


3m/sec

40 kg
(b) After Judy catches her dog

15
kg

(a) Before Judy catches her dog


3m/sec
40 kg

Vf

15
kg

Po =Initial momentum
= 40 x 0 + 15 x 3
= 45 kg m /sec

(b) After Judy catches her dog


Pf = (15+ 40 )x Vf
= 55 Vf kg m /sec
Po = PF (Conservation law
Vf = 45/55 = 0.818m/sec

A cannon of mass M propels a cannonball of


mass m horizontally with velocity Vb. What is
the recoil velocity of the cannon?
( Mass of cannon>> mass of cannon ball)

Forces acting on the system are:


Force exerted by the cannon on the cannon
ball, as the cannon is fired,
Equal and opposite reaction force exerted by
the cannonball on the cannon
These forces are extremely large, but act only
for a short instance in time, we call these
impulsive forces.
There are no external horizontal forces acting in
horizontal direction under consideration.

Hence total horizontal momentum of the


system is a conserved
Prior to the firing of the cannon, the total
momentum is zero ( nothing is initially moving)
After the cannon is fired, the total momentum of
the system takes the form

Hence total horizontal momentum of the


system is a conserved
Prior to the firing of the cannon, the total
momentum is zero (since momentum is mass
times velocity, and nothing is initially moving).
After the cannon is fired, the total momentum
of the system =

Elastic Collisions

In elastic collisions, both kinetic energy and


momentum are conserved.
Final momentum = initial momentum
Final Kinetic energy = initial kinetic energy

Conventio
(nSubscript 1 = Initial parameters before collision)
( Subscript 2 = Final parameters before collision)
Initial velocity

Initial velocity

U1

U2U2
Before
collision

After
collision

V1

V2

The kinetic energy of a point object (an object


so small that its mass can be assumed to
exist at one point), or a non-rotating rigid body,
is given by the equation

For example, one would calculate the kinetic


energy of an 80 kg mass traveling at 18
meters per second (40 mph) as

Momentum Conservation in Elastic collision


Initial momentum
u1
u2
u2
u1
v2

v1

U= velocity before collision

u1

u2 =

V= velocity after collision

Final momentum

KE is also conserved in Elastic collision


Initial KE
u1
u2
1
1
2
m2 u22
m1 u 1 +
2

v1

v2
Final KE
1
m1 v21
2

1
m1 u21
2

1
1
2
m1 v21
m2 u 2 =
2
2

+
+

1
m2 v22
2
1
m2 v22
2

Solving these two equations we get


uu1 1

uu2 2

vv1 1

vv2 2

(m1 - m2) u1
2m2u2
+
V1 =
(m1+ m2)
(m1+ m2)
2m1u1
(m2 m1) u2
+
V2 =
(m1+ m2)
( m 1+ m 2)

Example: Elastic Collision of Two Blocks


A 4.0 kg block moving to the right at 6.0 m/s
undergoes an elastic head-on collision with a
2.0 kg block moving to the right at 3.0 m/s.
Find their final velocities.

m1 = 4 kg

m2 = 2 kg

Solution :Elastic
Collision of Two Blocks
:
m2 = 2 kg
m1 = 4 kg

V1 ?

(m1 - m2) u1
2m2u2
+
V1 =
(m1+ m2)
(m1+ m2)
(4 - 2) 6
V1 =
+
(4 + 2)

2 2 3
(4 + 2)

V1 = (2 + 2) = 4m/sec

V2 ?

Solution :Elastic
Collision of Two Blocks
:
m2 = 2 kg
m1 = 4 kg

V1 ?

2m1u1
(m2 m1) u2
+
V2 =
(m1+ m2)
( m 1+ m 2)
(2 - 4) 3
V2 =
+
(4 + 2)

2 4 6
(4 + 2)

V2 = ( -1 + 8 ) = 7 m/sec

V2 ?

Collision of a moving ball with a


stationary ball with different
weights
m2
m1
m1 = m 2
m1 > m 2
m1 < m 2
Solid wall

Particular cases 1 : m1 = m2, u2 = 0


Before collision: u2= 0 (Stationary)
u1
(m1 - m2) u1
2m2u2
+
V1 =
(m1+ m2)
(m1+ m2)
V1 =

(0) u1
(m1+ m2)

2m2 (0)
+
(m1+ m2)

2m1u1
(m2 m1) u2
+
V2 =
(m1+ m2)
( m1+ m2)

V1 = 0
V2 = U 1
As m1=m2

Particular cases 1 : m1 = m2, u2 = 0

(m1 - m2) u1
2m2u2
+
V1 =
(m1+ m2)
(m1+ m2)

V1 = 0

2m1u1
(m2 m1) u2
+
V2 =
(m1+ m2)
( m1+ m2)

V2 = U 1

Particular cases 2 : m1 > m2, u2 = 0

(m1 - m2) u1
2m2u2
+
V1 =
(m1+ m2)
(m1+ m2)
2m1u1
(m2 m1) u2
+
V2 =
(m1+ m2)
( m1+ m2)

V1 is + ve= 0
V2 is + ve

Particular cases 3 : m1 < m2, u2 = 0

(m1 - m2) u1
2m2u2
+
V1 =
(m1+ m2)
(m1+ m2)
2m1u1
(m2 m1) u2
+
V2 =
(m1+ m2)
( m1+ m2)

V1 is - ve= 0
V2 is + ve

Particular cases 3 : m1 << m2, V2 = 0, U1= V1

(m1 - m2) u1
2m2u2
+
V1 =
(m1+ m2)
(m1+ m2)
2m1u1
(m2 m1) u2
+
V2 =
(m1+ m2)
( m1+ m2)

V1 is - ve= 0
V2 is + ve

Particular cases 4 : m1 , m2 tending to , u2 = 0


Elastic collision against wall
(m1 - m2) u1
2m2u2
+
V1 =
(m1+ m2)
(m1+ m2)
V1 =

(- ) u1
+
()

2m2u2
()

2m1u1
(m2 m1) u2
+
V2 =
(m1+ m2)
( m1+ m2)
2m1u1
()x 0
+
V2 =
()
()

V1 = - u1

V2 = 0

End

10 g bullet is fired
from a 3.0 kg rifle
with a speed of 500
m/s. Find recoil
speed of rifle?
Pfx mB (v fx ) bullet + mR (v fx ) rifle Pix 0

(v fx ) rifle

mB

(v fx ) bullet
mR
(0.010 kg)

(500 m/s) -1.67 m/s


(3.0 kg)

An astronaut of mass 60 kg is doing spacewalk


to repair a satellite. He asked for a repair
manual. You throw it to him at a speed of 4.0
m/s relative to the spacecraft. He is at rest when
he catches the 3.0 kg book.Calculate
1.His velocity just after he catches the book.
2.Initial and final KE of book-astronaut system.
3.Impulse exerted by the book on the astronaut.

(a) velocity just after he catches the book.


(b) initial and final kinetic energies of the
book-astronaut system.
(c) impulse exerted by the book on the
astronaut.

mB vBi mAv Ai mB vBi mB mA v f

mB
(3.0 kg)
v f vBi
(4.0 m/s)
0.190 m/s
mB mA
(3.0 kg) (60.0 kg)

K sys i m v (3.0 kg)(4.0 m/s) 24 J


1
2

1
2

2
B Bi

K sys f mB mA )v (3.0 kg 60.0 kg)(0.190 m/s) 2 1.1 J


1
(
2

2
f

1
2

I A PA mA v A (60.0 kg)(0.190 m/s 0.0 m/s) 11.4 N s

important point :
isolated systems are not equivalent to closed
systems.
Closed systems cannot exchange matter with
the surroundings, but can exchange energy
Isolated systems can exchange neither matter
nor energy with their surroundings,

Inelastic Collisions in 1D
m1v1 f m2 v2 f m1v1i m2v2i
Inelastic collision: v1 f v2 f vcm

m1 m2 vcm m1v1i m2v2i


Psys p1i m1v1i
2

Psys2

Psys2

p
K mv
, so K i
and K f
2m
2m1
2(m1 m2 )
1
2

Therefore, Kf < Ki and there is a net loss of energy in an inelastic collision.