Electrical Grounding

• Grounding: the intentional and permanent connection between neutral and ground • Ground Fault: unintentional connection between an energized conductor and ground • 90% electrical faults are ground faults

Purpose of Grounding , Earthling , Bonding • Personal safety ( Fire, Injury) • Ensure operation of protective devices

Types of Grounding
• • • • Isolated ground (Ungrounded) Solid or effective ground Low impedance ground High impedance ground

Ungrounded power system
 Low fault current for line-to-ground faults (typically < 5A)  No Arc Flash Hazard for ground faults  Continue operation during FIRST ground fault

Ungrounded power system
 Difficult to locate ground faults  Severe transient over-voltages possible during ground faults  Higher costs due to labor and downtime

locating ground faults
 Second ground fault on another phase will

result in phase-phase fault

Ungrounded power system

Ungrounded power system

Solidly Grounded System
Very high ground fault currents
• Fault must be cleared, shutting down equipment. • Generators may not be rated for ground fault

Tremendous amount of arc flash / blast energy
• Equipment and people are not rated for energy


• Dangerous condition associated with release of energy caused by an electrical arc • Burns resulting from arc flash and ignition of flammable cloths • Arc temperature can reach 35000 F • Fatal burn can occur at distance over 10 ft.

Before and After Arc Flash

Grounded power system

Grounded power system

Grounding through zigzag transformer

Electrical Bonding
• Bonding: connection of all non-current carrying conductive parts of a distribution system together to form a bonding system • Bonding System is connected to the Grounding Electrode by a Grounding Conductor • Bonding is not affected by the choice of power system grounding

Without Bonding


Live, Neutral, Earth & Fuses





Ground Fault

Electric shock ( when Grounding is not proper )

Fault sense by ELCB

• A protective earth (PE) connection ensures that all exposed conductive surfaces are at the same electrical potential as the surface of the Earth, to avoid the risk of electrical shock if a person touches a device in which an insulation fault has occurred. It ensures that in the case of an insulation fault (a "short circuit"), a very high current flows, which will trigger an overcurrent protection device (fuse, circuit breaker) that disconnects the power supply.

Protective Earth Connection (Earthing)

Functional Earth Connection
• A functional earth connection serves a purpose other than providing protection against electrical shock. In contrast to a protective earth connection, a functional earth connection may carry a current during the normal operation of a device. Functional earth connections may be required by devices such as surge suppression and electromagnetic-compatibility filters, some types of antennas and various measurement instruments. Generally the protective earth is also used as a functional earth, though this requires care in some situations

IT Network

TT Network

TN-S earthing system

TN-C earthing system

TN-C-S earthing system

• TN-S: separate protective earth (PE) and neutral (N) conductors from transformer to consuming device, which are not connected together at any point after the building distribution point • TN-C: combined PE and N conductor all the way from the transformer to the consuming device • TN-C-S earthing system: combined PEN conductor from transformer to building distribution point, but separate PE and N conductors in fixed indoor wiring and flexible power cords In a • TT earthing system, the protective earth connection of the consumer is provided by a local connection to earth, independent of any earth connection at the generator

• TN networks save the cost of a low-impedance earth connection at the site of each consumer. Such a connection (a buried metal structure) is required to provide protective earth in IT and TT systems. • TN-C networks save the cost of an additional conductor needed for separate N and PE connections. However, to mitigate the risk of broken neutrals, special cable types and lots of connections to earth are needed. • TT networks require RCD protection, and often an expensive time-delay type is needed to provide discrimination with an RCD downstream.

• In TN, an insulation fault is very likely to lead to a high short-circuit current that will trigger an overcurrent circuit-breaker or fuse and disconnect the L conductors. • In the majority of TT systems, the earth fault loop impedance will be too high to do this, and so an RCD must be employed

• In TN-S and TT systems (and in TN-C-S beyond the point of the split), a residual-current device can be used as an additional protection. • In the absence of any insulation fault in the consumer device, the equation IL1+IL2+IL3+IN = 0 holds, and an RCD can disconnect the supply as soon as this sum reaches a threshold (typically 10-500 mA). • An insulation fault between either L or N and PE will trigger an RCD with high probability.

• In IT and TN-C networks, residual current devices are far less likely to detect an insulation fault. In a TN-C system, they would also be very vulnerable to unwanted triggering from contact between earth conductors of circuits on different RCDs or with real ground, thus making their use impracticable. • Also, RCDs usually isolate the neutral core, and it is dangerous to do this in a TN-C system

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