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v.1.6

Chief GGD-MGD, NAMRIA

OUTLINE

WHAT IS GPS

METHODS OF OBTAINING POSITION

COORDINATE SYSTEMS

PRS 92

SURVEYING WITH GPS

WHAT IS GPS?

WHAT DOES IT DO?

GPS --Shortened form of NAVSTAR GPS.

NAVigation System with Time And Ranging Global

Positioning System.

--It is a solution for one of man’s oldest and

most troublesome problem

--Provides an answer to the question “where

on earth am I?”

Where on earth am i?

After WWII it became apparent to U.S. DoD that a

solution had to be found to the problem of accurate,

absolute positioning.

years, including:

-- Transit, Loran, Decca etc.

-- All of these projects allowed positions to be

determined but were limited in accuracy or functionality.

-- This concept promised to fulfill all the requirements of

the U.S. Govt. i.e. to be able to:

-- Determine ones position accurately

-- at any point on the earth’s surface

-- at any time

-- in any weather.

GPS

GPS is a satellite-based system that uses a constellation of

24 satellites to give a user an accurate position.

Accuracy is: hiker or soldier—15m; A ship in coastal

waters– 5m; land surveyor– 1cm or less.

GPS can be used to achieve these accuracies in all of

these applications, the difference being:

-- type of GPS receiver used

-- technique employed

GPS was originally designed for military use . Soon after

the original proposals were made, it became clear that

civilians could also use GPS, not only for personal

positioning but for marine and surveying as well.

Applications range from in-car navigation to scientific

research.

Can be this: an instrumented sheep...

access areas.

…… or a handy parking locator.

here

Already an important reality

GPS on Cell Phone

- 5 millions already in Japan -

The World of Applications

(GJU source)

Safety

• Aviation

Integrity

(error-free),

Standards,

Low costs,

Low power cons.,

Small size,

• Rail

Regulation, Friendly use,

Continuity, Best perf.

Availability, accordingly

Accuracy

High precision,

High accuracy,

OOSA Training Course High reliability

Types Of GPS Receiver

Handheld- small light weight (like cell phones), single

frequency, used by a hiker or a soldier. Good for searching

people and places. Accuracy =+/-15m with S.A. off

can be on natural or differential mode, used by ships in

high seas and coastal waters. Good for positioning depths

in hydrographic surveys. Accuracy = +/- 15m (Natural) or

+/- 0.50m (Diff’l)

multi- frequency (GNSS), used by land surveyors. Good for

positioning geodetic control points.

Accuracy = +/- 5 to 15m(autonomous)

= +/-5 to50cm (PPK,RTK)

= millimeter (Post processed)

Epoch 35

GNSS EPOCH

Epoch 25 –

DUAL GPS

Epoch 10

L1 only GPS

DUAL

GPS

SOKKIA

GNSS

L1 GPS

ASHTECH

DUAL GPS

L1 only GPS

Magellan

GNSS

LEICA system 1200

GNSS receivers

GX1210- L1

GX1230-GNSS

S

O

U

T

L1 9600 L1 9200

H

G

P

S

L1 S60 L1 S66

DUAL S86S

DUAL S82

System Overview

Space Segment

User Segment

Monitor Stations

Diego Garcia

Ascension Is.

Kwajalein

Hawaii

Colorado Springs

Colorado Springs

Control Segment

Space Segment- satellites

orbiting the earth

Designed for 24 Satellites

• Minimum 4 sats visible

above 15deg cut-off angle

at any point of the earth’s

surface at any one time

• Orbits at 20,200 km

(12,600 mi) every 12 hours

• Equipped with four(4)very

accurate atomic clocks– 2

cesium & 2 rubidium

• Life span- 7.5 to 12 yrs

Satellites

Broadcasts 2 carrier waves (L-band) constantly

at the speed of light.

about sats orbit & clock corrections & sat

health

L2 carrier – 1 code (P)

P – precise (military use)

Control Segment

monitor stations and four ground antennas with uplink

capabilities. Monitor stations track all satellites in view

Master Control Station (MCS) to determine satellite clock and

orbit states and to update the navigation message of each

satellite. This updated information is transmitted to the

satellites via ground antennas

USER SEGMENT—anybody that

receives and uses the GPS signal

GPS MODERNIZATION (2005)

Goals:

System-wide improvement in accuracy, availability,

integrity & reliability

Robustness against interference

Improved indoor, mobile & urban use

Interoperability with other GNSS constellations

Backward compatibility

C/A, L1/L2 L2C, L5 L1C

Modernized GPS – Civil Signals

Second civil signal (L2C)

--designed to meet commercial needs for higher accuracy

through ionospheric correction, higher effective power &

improved data structure, reduced interference, speed up signal

acquisition, enable miniaturization of receivers, may enable

indoor use (Began with GPS Block IIR-M in Sept. 2005) 24sats in

2014

Third civil signal (L5)

--designed to meet demanding requirements for transportation

safety (safety-of-life); uses highly protected Aeronautical Radio

Navigation Service (ARNS) band; Begins with GPS Block IIF, first

launch=2007 ; 24 sats= 2016

Fourth civil signal (L1C)

--designed with international partners to enable GNSS

interoperability ; Begins with GPS block III ; first launch=2013 ;

24 sats= 2021

How GPS Works– Position Computation

measuring the distance from the

satellites to the GPS receiver.

The basic idea is that of resection, if

you know the distance to three

known points relative to your own

position, you can determine your

own position relative to those three

points.

Calculating Distance

By the formula D = VT

V= VELOCITY of radio

signal=299,792km/sec

T= TIME taken for the radio signal to

travel from the satellite to receiver.

Calculating Time

5s

eco

nds ds

o n

4 sec

Calculate since …. the signal left the satellite

How Do We Know When the Signal

Left the Satellite?

• The receiver and satellites use the same code

• They are synchronized to generate the code

at the same exact time

• Then, the receiver looks at the incoming code

from the satellite and determines how long

ago the receiver generated that code

measure time

difference between

same part of code

from satellite

Methods Of Obtaining

Position

Methods Of Obtaining Position

1. Autonomous, absolute

or simple navigation

--- This is the most simple

technique employed by

GPS receivers to

instantaneously give a

position, height and

accurate time. Used by

hikers, ships that are far

out at sea & military.

Accuracy can only be

better than 20m. This

method is subject to all

error sources that

degrades a GPS position.

Sources Of Error That Degrade A GPS

Position

Ionospheric & atmospheric delays– slows down satellite signal

while passing thru the ionosphere: solution=dual frequency

receivers

Satellite & receiver clock errors—slight drift of satellite clocks:

solution= double differencing in post processing

Multipath– occurs when GPS antenna is positioned close to a large

reflecting surface such as building or lake. Signal does not travel

directly to antenna but hits nearby object then reflected into the

antenna creating a false range: solution= stay away from

obstructions & use ground plane or choke ring antenna and plan

longer occupation times.

Dilution of precision– measure of strength of satellite geometry

related to spacing & position of satellites in the sky: solution=

observe as many satellites as possible, lower values of DOP gives

the most accurate position.

Selective availability– The control segment slightly alters the time

of satellite clocks & broadcasts slightly different ephemeris:

solution= use differential method

Anti spoofing– encrypts the P-code into a signal called Y-code:

solution= use decrypting device or differential method

Methods Of Obtaining Position

-- Errors affecting the measurement of satellite range

can be completely eliminated or at least minimized

--Principles –> a reference receiver is set up on a known

point and acts as base station. It calculates an

autonomous position and estimates very precisely the

ranges to various satellites. It then works out the

difference between the computed (from the input

coordinates) and estimated range values. This differences

are known as corrections. These corrections were

broadcast through a radio data link to the rover receiver.

The rover receiver also calculates ranges to satellites

then applies the range corrections received from the base

station. This lets it calculate a much more accurate

position. This method is used for inshore hydrographic

surveys, navigation & GIS data acquisition. Accuracy

ranges from 1-2m 0r less.

Methods Of Obtaining Position

3. Differential Phase GPS -- used mainly in control

survey and related industries to achieve positioning

accuracies of 5-50mm.

--- it is a differential technique which means that a

minimum of two GPS receivers are always used

simultaneously.

Post-Processing involves:

--- determining baseline vectors between pairs of

receivers.

--- computing the components of the baseline vectors

between observing stations (dX,dY,dZ).

---once the coordinates for one or more stations are

known, new points can be determined with an accuracy

relative to the known coordinates.

GPS Coordinate System

GPS uses WGS 84 ellipsoid

a= 6,378,137m; b=6,356,752.314m

f= 1/298.25722

Geocentric Datum

Cartesian coordinate system is the

system used by GPS in defining the

location of a point in space. It use

distances in the X,Y and Z axes from

the origin (center of ellipsoid)

Cartesian coordinates

coordinate system. In two dimensions, this system consists of a

pair of lines on a flat surface, or plane, that intersect at right

angles. Each of the lines is called an axis and the point at which

they intersect is called the origin. The axes are usually drawn

horizontally and vertically and are usually referred to as the x and

y axes, respectively. In Cartesian coordinates, a point on the plane

whose coordinates are (2,3) is 2 units to the right of the y axis

and 3 units up from the x axis. In three-dimensional Cartesian

coordinates, the z axis is added so that there are three axes all

perpendicular to each other.

Earth-Centered, Earth

Fixed System (ECEF)

Z axis = Mean rotation axis (polar

axis) fixed in time

Origin of datum

e ato r

u d Y axis = 90 E longitude

g i t equ

lo n of Y axis in plane of equator

0 n e

= a

x is n pl

a i

X xis

a

X

Cartesian & Geodetic Coordinates

Z P

Cartesian

coordinates (X, Y,

Z)

Geodetic

Z

coordinates

Y (Lat, Long, Ht)

Y

X

Local coordinate system-LUZON DATUM 1911

All maps in Phil. were made using this datum

• Reference Ellipsoid is Clarke 1866

•a= 6,378,206.4m; b= 6,356,583.8m

•f= 1/294.978

• Datum Origin at Balanacan marked on the ground

Latitude N 13° 33’ 41.00”

Longitude E 121° 52’ 3.00”

Geiod/Spheroid separation is zero

Geodetic Surveys carried out by

• Astronomical observation

• Triangulation and Traverse

The assumption GEOID/SPHEROID = zero

as the survey was extended away from the origin

these surfaces will never coincide because the ellipsoid

is a regular surface while the geoid is not

OLD LUZON uses the MSL heights

to compute Geographic Positions

instead of Ellipsoidal hts.

The old luzon position is being

computed at a point equal to the

deflection of the vertical. These

deflections are not equal in all parts

of the Geoid

OLD LUZON vs. PRS 92 GP

computations

Geographic Positions instead of Ellipsoidal hts.

transformed from GPS to compute the

Geographic Position of a point

Triangulation of the Philippines

USC&GS commenced fieldwork in January 1901

until end of 1926. Triangulation survey was done

simultaneously. Each party started survey by

astronomic observations – each on its own datum

Insurrection was still in progress and this resulted

in bits of second and third order triangulation

widely scattered throughout the islands

This accounts for the poor figures and connections

Triangulation of the Philippines

, 13 datum’s were brought together into Vigan

Datum---this does not account for all the other

islands in Visayas and Mindanao

established in 1911 to cover the whole country—

which was later called Luzon datum

Principal

Triangulation

stations of

The Philippine

Islands ---The These are 2nd

starting points of order trig

all types of survey stations

in the country established

(Topographic, from 1901 to

Hydrographic and 1926

Cadastral)

NRMDP-- 1989

Natural Resources Management and

Development Project

Australian assisted project of the DENR.

Geodetic survey component was

undertaken by SAGRIC, Int’l (with Certeza

as sub-contractor) in coordination with

NAMRIA through CGSD

GEODETIC COMPONENT

establishing first order control points.

It also provided limited densification of the network

with second and third order stations.

It aims to determine the transformation parameters

relating WGS84 to LUZON Datum.

Analysis of the Triangulation and

Birth of PRS 92

Analysis of the old data set reveals large errors (includes punching

and typographical) - up to 56m in lat and 80m in long.

thus giving a modified G.P. and a new name– Philippine Reference

System 1992(PRS’92)

PRS’92 datum quantities are the same as LUZON 1911 except for

the Geoid-Ellipsoid separation (N=0.34m).

and homogeneous set of coordinates

Geodetic Network of the Philippines

Error ellipses of

triangulation

stations

PRS’92

A new network established using

GPS under the Geodetic Survey

Component of the Natural Resources

Management and Development Project

(NRMDP).

This new network has a more

accurate and homogeneous set of

coordinates, referred to the Clark 1866

spheroid and the modified Luzon Datum

which is named Philippine Reference

System 1992.

Seven parameters

PRS to WGS WGS to PRS

Trans X = -127.622 +127.621531

Trans Y = -67.245 + 67.243395

Trans Z = -47.0433 + 47.047384

Rot X = 3.068 - 3.06803751

Rot Y = -4.903 + 4.90297653

Rot Z = -1.578 + 1.57807293

Scale factor = -1.06002 + 1.06002112

Heights & GEOIDS

GPS heights are given in relation to the surface of

the WGS84 Ellipsoid (Ellipsoidal Ht).

Existing heights are orthometric heights

measured relative to mean sea level.

Mean sea level corresponds to a surface known as

GEOID.

The geoid can be defined as an equipotential

surface, i.e. the force of gravity is constant at any

point on the geoid.

The geoid is of irregular shape and does not

correspond to any ellipsoid.

The density of the earth have an effect on the

geoid-- causing it to rise in the more dense

regions and fall in less dense regions.

Surveying with GPS

GPS measuring techniques

for relative positioning

Static – used for long lines, geodetic

networks, tectonic plate studies etc. Offers

high accuracy over long distances but is

comparatively slow. Minimum one(1) hour

observation for a 20km line with 5 satellites &

GDOP of 8 or lower. Longer lines require

longer observation times.

Fast Static or Rapid Static – used for

establishing local control networks, Network

densification etc. Good for baselines up to

20km and is much faster than Static

technique. Minimum eight(8)mins occupation

time using Dual freq. receivers & good

satellite constellation.

GPS measuring techniques

for relative positioning

Kinematic – used for topographic surveys,

(measuring many points in quick succession).

Requires an initialization step to solve for

the unknown integer ambiguity in the GPS

signal. Needs reinitialization when passing on

obstructed areas. Minimum 15sec occupation

time using Dual freq. receivers & good

satellite constellation. Longer lines require

longer observation time.

RTK – uses a radio data link to transmit

satellite data from reference to rover.

Calculate & displays G.P. in real time. Subject

to interference & line of sight blockage.

GPS Precision and Accuracy

Precision

GPS is a very precise measurement method.

GPS gives consistent repeatability or precision– if

the same equipment and careful measurement

techniques are used.

Accuracy

GPS accuracy comes from:

--Application of surveying methods such as

network design.

--Stability and accuracy of the reference controls.

--Redundant measurements.

--Application of precise set-up measurements.

Distances computed by GPS processing

GPS Field Procedures

PLANNING:

Project Area, Reference Station

Descriptions & Coordinates,

Network Scheme with Proposed

New Stations, Receivers &

Accessories, Personnel, Field GPS SURVEY WORKFLOW

sheets, Description Forms

Mobilization &

Courtesy Call

RECONNAISSANCE &

MONUMENTATION DBASE

TRANSFORM

OBSERVATION & TO PRS ‘92

DOWNLOADING OF DATA

TO COMPUTER

Sufficient Observation Time for the

Project

PERFORM NETWORK

ADJUSTMENT

Using WGS84 as Datum &

Coordinate System

OBSERVATION INFO VIEW RAW DATA

Such As Antenna Heights, PROCESS GPS USING TIMELINE

Where Measured, Station BASELINES TO EDIT/REMOVE

Names, Antenna Type, CYCLE SLIPS

Receiver Serial No.

Planning a GPS survey

1. The project purpose = Control survey or Topographic.

Optimal = 4 receivers

4. Appropriate number and length of observations –minimum =

2 sessions per station & minimum 1 hr per session (control)

15 sec to 1 minute per point (kinematic)

time– use planning utilities)

Receivers

Network Sketch

Make a sketch of the stations

- Old controls

- New points to be observed (approx.

locations)

distributed on the project area.

Network Design

Design your network so that all stations have at least

three(3) independent baselines attached to them.

More baselines give more ways to compute

coordinates.

a set of baselines between network points. The

baselines connecting these points should create closed

figures with a minimum number of sides such as

triangles. Triangles will create a rigid network by

adding more baselines, thus helping generate

redundancy and multiple, evenly distributed baselines

to each point.

NETWORK DESIGN

(3) Baselines attached

Triangle figures were formed in

each session/observation

Connection to Existing Controls

The recommendation for connecting to existing controls are:

Order

Minimum 3 2 2

Recommend 4 or more 3 or more 2

ed

because the coordinates of your new stations can only be as accurate

as your reference stations.

Reconnaissance

Ideally, all GPS stations should be free from

any obstructions above 15 degrees of the

horizon, accessible and permanent. Away

from radio station towers & transmission

lines. But if there are no ideal sites, the

following can be accepted :

the GPS station visibility plot with minimum

distance of 10m.

Reconnaissance

20 degrees above the horizon

Variable scattered horizon

obstruction of 25% of the GPS

station visibility plot

Monuments

Dimensions – 0.30m x 0.30m cement putty.

square base frustum with the following dimensions:

STATION TOP BOTTOM DEPTH HEIGHT

First Order 0.30 m 0.40 m 1.00 m 0.20 m

Second Order 0.30 m 0.40 m 1.00 m 0.20 m

Third Order 0.25 m 0.35 m 1.00 m 0.20 m

Fourth Order 0.20 m 0.30 m 0.80 m 0.20 m

and agency name.

Station mark – any non- corrosive

metal such as Copper nail or

Brass rod

form in describing a GPS station.

Fill up all information including

sketches.

Observations

Field sheets – use NAMRIA field sheets. Fill

up all information-- station name, antenna

ht., receiver serial no., measured to,

antenna type, etc.

Antenna – indicate where measurements

were taken.

-- Center antenna to station by

plumb bob or optical plummet to the

nearest millimeter.

-- Measure heights before and

after observation to nearest millimeter.

Receiver settings – verify that settings for all

receivers are compatible or the same, such

as elevation mask, sync rates, SV enabled or

disabled, data formats(no mixing of old &

new receivers)

device within 10m, such as radio, cell phone,

etc., while collecting data.

-- for stations with

obstructions, longer observation times are

advisable.

GPS OBSERVATION

Suggested minimum session lengths—Fast Static

Up to 5 Km 5 Km to 10 Km

5 satellites 15 mins 25 mins

4 satellites 20 mins 35 mins

The times above are the minimum period of unbroken data, if in doubt record more data

If observations are being conducted in a remote area where the baselines cannot be

processed and validated before the field teams leave the area consider longer observation times

PDOP should be less than 8 and preferably less than 5 particularly for shorter observation such

as Rapid Static. Try to avoid periods of high PDOP when planning observations.

Satellites should be above 20 degrees if possible.

GPS OBSERVATION

Suggested minimum session lengths-- Static

Single Frequency

0-5Km 5-10Km

1 hour 2 hours

Dual Frequency

GPS OBSERVATION

Suggested minimum session lengths– RTK, PPK

0-5Km 5-10Km

8 sec 15 sec

INITIALIZATION TECHNIQUES:

1. Known-Point Initialization

2. Static Initialization

3. Postprocessed On-The-Fly Initialization

4. Reoccupation Initialization

TIPS TO AVOID POOR PROCESSING RESULTS

Poor GPS processing results can occur for a variety of reasons, including:

•incorrect antenna height measurement

•incorrect naming of stations

•tripod centering error

•Inconsistencies in receiver setting such as:

•elevation masks

•sync rates (logging rate)

•SVs enabled or disabled

•Data formats (if mixing older 4000 ST receivers with newer 4000 series receivers, such as

4000SSi, 4600LS, 4700 or 4800 receivers)

•Collecting data under marginal conditions, such as:

•observing too few satellites

•high PDOP

•too many satellites at low elevation angle

•many cycle slips

•insufficient observation time

STANDARDS OF ACCURACY

(National Geodetic Network)

1 cm/Km 1/100,000

2. Second Order : 20 Parts per million (20 PPM)

2 cm/Km 1/50,000

3. Third Order : 50 Parts per million (50 PPM)

5 cm/Km 1/20,000

4. Fourth Order : 100 Parts per million (100 PPM)

10 cm/Km 1/10,000

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