Robert Boyle

•Irish born English theologian, philosopher, chemist, physicist, inventor •Boyle was the 14th child and 7th son of Richard Boyle, 1st Earl of Cork •As a child, he spoke French, Latin and Greek •Boyle went to college at 9 after his mother passed away •Robert Boyle is considered the first modern chemist •In 1662, Boyle proposed the Boyle’s Law, which states that there is an inverse relationship between the volume and pressure of a gas at constant temperature.

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A very classy man!

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There is an INVERSE relationship between the amount of pressure on the gas and the volume of the gas (at constant temperature)

Boyles Law: Practice problems
1. The pressure on 5 L of gas increases from 101.3 kPa to 202.6kPa at constant temperature. What is the new 2.5L volume it will occupy? 2. The sample of gas initially at 2 atm and occupying 6.4L is allowed to expand to 9.6L at constant temperature. What will the new pressure be? 1.33atm

3. If the pressure on 30L a gas triples it’s volume will be? 10L

Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures
• Dalton's law of partial pressures states that the total pressure exerted by a gaseous mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of each individual component in a gas mixture. This empirical law was observed by John Dalton in 1801 and is related to the ideal gas laws.

• In other words, PT=P1+P2+P3+ etc. • The partial pressure of any gas is directly related to it’s mole ratio.
• Ex.1) A sample of gas contains 1 mole O2 and 1 mole He and 2 moles of N2 at STP. What are the partial pressures of each component?

Jacques CharlesA. A dark-haired beady-eyed Frenchman who was the first person to eat bleu cheese. B. Fair-haired Canadian born in 1880, famous for being the first person to win the Iditerod in a sled pulled by polar bears. C. Danish mathematician, chemist, writer and inventor of dental floss. D. The French chemist, physicist, and aeronaut who invented the hydrogen balloon.

Jacques Charles
The French chemist, physicist, and aeronaut Jacques Alexandre César Charles, was born November 12, 1746, in Beaugency, Loiret, France. Beginning as a clerk in the finance ministry, Charles turned to science and experimented with electricity. He developed several inventions, including a hydrometer and reflecting goniometer, and improved the Gravesand heliostat and Fahrenheit's aerometer. He is best known for his formulation in 1787 of one of the basic gas laws, known as Charles's law, which states that, at constant pressure, the volume occupied by a fixed weight of gas is directly proportional to the absolute temperature. However, during his lifetime, Charles was better known for inventing the hydrogen balloon.
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In 1783, realizing that hydrogen was lighter than air, he made the first balloon using hydrogen gas and, on August 27, 1783, the balloon ascended to a height of nearly 3,000 feet (914 meters). Upon landing outside of Paris, it was destroyed by terrified peasants. On December 1, 1783, he, along with Ainé Roberts, ascended to a height of 1,800 feet (549 meters) in the newly constructed La Charlière. He was elected to the French Académie des Sciences in 1785. Charles died on. April 7, 1823, in Paris.

Charles Law
• Formula: V1 V2 ---- = ---T1 T2

KEY: The temperature must be in Kelvin degrees. Why?

Charles Law Practice:
1. A 20 L sample of oxygen is heated from 20oC to 40oC at constant pressure. What is the new volume? 21.37L 2. What temperature must a 15 ml sample of gas initially at 600K be changed to to occupy 5 ml?200K

Gay-Lussac’s Law
Derived by Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, French chemist, in 1802. He determined that there is a direct relationship between the Pressure and Absolute temperature of a gas P1 P2 ----- = ----T1 T2

Gay-Lussac Practice :
1. The temperature on a gas at 50 kPa, at constant volume, is raised from 200oC to 400oC. What is the new pressure in kPa, torr? 71.1 kPa
533.7 torr

The Combined Gas Law P 1 V1 P 2 V2
---------- = ----------

T1

T2

Combined Law Example
1. A 100ml sample of gas initially at 200K and 2 atm is heated to 400K and the pressure is reduced to 1 atm. What will the new volume be?

2. The volume of a gas-filled balloon is 30.0 L at 313 K and 153 kPa. What would the volume be at STP?