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Refrigeration and cryogenics

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cryogenics

Dr hab. in. Maciej Chorowski, prof. PWr

temperature

Isentropic expansion

Joule-Thomson expansion

Free expansion gas exhaust

external work

T

p

h

2'

external work

Drop of the gas temperature:

Entropy is a function of pressure and temperature

S= S(p, T)

Total differential must be equal to zero:

S

S

dp 0

dS

dT

T p

p T

Differential effect of isentropic expansion s shows the

change in temperature with respect to the change of

pressure:

S

dT

s

dp

external work

We know from thermodynamics

We get

dT

s

dp

v

T

cp

cp

cp

external work

1 T

s

p

After integration

T2 p2

T 1 p1

Piston expander

2

1

p

6

1

G AZ

p 1, T 1, h

G AZ

p 2, T 2, h

Cryogenic turboexpander

G AZ

p 1, T 1, h

G AZ

p2

T2

h2

liquid expands

adiabatically in an

open system without

doing any external

work, and there is no

increment in velocity

on the system

reference surface, the

process is referred to

as throttle expansion.

In practice, this

process is implemented

by installing in the gas

stream some hydraulic

resistance such as

throttling valve, gate,

calibrated orifice,

capillary, and so on.

1

w

2

w

p

p

q1 2

1 2

w2 w12 g z 2 z1 h2 h1 l1 2

2

T

p

h

T

T

T

h'

K

h= h(p, T)

Total differential must be equal to zero:

h

h

dp

dh

dT

t p

p T

Differential throttling effect h: h

dT

p

h

h

dp h

p, M Pa

1 0 0 ,0

Ar

5 0 ,0

2 5 ,0

N e

1 0 ,0

5 ,0

H

2 ,5

p o w ie t r z e

N

1 ,0

H e

0 ,5

3

10

25

50

100

250

500

1000

T, K

Gas

eksperyment

Walsa

Argon

765

-----

Azot

604

837

Hel 3

39

-----

Hel 4

46

34,3

Neon

230

-----

Powietrze

650

895

Metan

953

-----

Tlen

771

1090

204,6

223

Wodr

V

T 0,p

pf V

1.

2.

3.

4.

Adiabatic process

Non equilibrium process gas

pressure and external pressure are

not the same

Constant external pressure (pf=

const.)

External work against pressure pf

Final gas temperature:

I Law of Thermodynamics

u f u0 p f (v f v0 )

where:

u0, uf initial and final gas internal energy

v0, vf initial and final gas volume

For ideal gas:

u f u 0 c v (T f T0 )

p 0 v 0 RT0

p f v f RT f

c v R / 1

We get:

1 p f

T f To

T0

1

p0

T0

k

T f 1 p f / p 0 k 1

Comparison of the

processes for air

Cryogenic gas

refrigerators

Heat exchangers

Recuperative

Regenerative

Comparison of coolers

heat exchangers

Joule Thomson refrigerators

Claude refrigerators

Stirling coolers

Stirling cooler

Stirling cooler

p

p

m ax

of two isotherms and two isobars

q

H2O

q H 2O

T0

1

3

p

T0

m in

T

R

in four steps :

1.

Step 1-2: Isothermal

gas compression in

warm chamber

2.

Step 2-3: Isochoric

gas cooling in

regenerator

3.

Step 3-4:Isothermal

gas expansion with

external work

4.

Step 4-1: Isochoric

gas heating in

regenerator

T

q H2O

2

T0

V

V

T

linear motor

filled with ideal gas

Str

q

T

lc le T0 T

v2

v2

dv

l c RTo

RTo ln

v

v1

v1

v1

dv

v1

le RT

RT ln

v

v2

v2

v2

q RT ln

v1

Work of

isothermal

compression

Work of

isothermal

expansion

Heat of

isothermal

expansion

Stirlin

g

cooler

used

for air

liquefa

ct-ion

liquefaction

refrigerator

Four steps of McMahon cycle:

1.

Filling .

2.

Gas displacement

3.

Free exhaust of the gas

4.

Discharge of cold chamber

Efficiency of McMahon cooler:

T p1 / p 2 1

GM

To p1 / p 2 T ln p1 / p 2

McMahon refrigerator

Combination of McMahon

and J-T cooler, 250 mW at

2,5 K

V

T 0,p

pf V

cooler

coolers

Gifford, 1963,

rather curiosity that

efficient cooler

Kittel, Radebaugh,

1983 orifice pulse

tube

multiply by-pass pulse

tube

orifice pulse tube cooler

applications

Weight:2.4 kg

Dimensions (l x w x h):11.4 x 11.4 x

22 cm

Capacity:2.5W @ 65K

Ultimate low temperature:35K

Input power2kW

Pulse tube

Adiabatic demagnetization

of paramagnetic

Paramagnetic salts

Magnetic coolers

Magnetic cooler

moving paramagnetic

cooler with magnetic

regenerator

Ceramic magnetic

regenerator material

Gd2O2S with an

average diameter of

0.35 mm for G-M and

pulse tube

cryocoolers.

Cooler efficiency at 80 K

Family of cryocoolers

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