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# Refrigeration and

cryogenics

## Zakad Kriogeniki i Technologii Gazowych

Dr hab. in. Maciej Chorowski, prof. PWr

## Methods of lowering the

temperature

Isentropic expansion
Joule-Thomson expansion
Free expansion gas exhaust

external work
T
p
h

2'

## Gas isentropic expansion with

external work
Drop of the gas temperature:
Entropy is a function of pressure and temperature
S= S(p, T)
Total differential must be equal to zero:

S
S
dp 0
dS
dT
T p
p T
Differential effect of isentropic expansion s shows the
change in temperature with respect to the change of
pressure:
S

dT

s
dp

## Gas isentropic expansion with

external work
We know from thermodynamics

We get

dT

s
dp

v
T

cp

cp

cp

external work

## For the ideal gas:

1 T
s
p
After integration
T2 p2

T 1 p1

Piston expander

2
1
p

6
1

G AZ
p 1, T 1, h

G AZ
p 2, T 2, h

Cryogenic turboexpander
G AZ
p 1, T 1, h

G AZ
p2
T2
h2

## When gas, vapour or

liquid expands
open system without
doing any external
work, and there is no
increment in velocity
on the system
reference surface, the
process is referred to
as throttle expansion.
In practice, this
process is implemented
by installing in the gas
stream some hydraulic
resistance such as
throttling valve, gate,
calibrated orifice,
capillary, and so on.

1
w

2
w

p
p

q1 2

1 2
w2 w12 g z 2 z1 h2 h1 l1 2
2

T
p

h
T

T
T

h'
K

## Enthalpy is a function of pressure and temperature:

h= h(p, T)
Total differential must be equal to zero:
h
h
dp
dh
dT
t p
p T
Differential throttling effect h: h

dT
p

h
h
dp h

p, M Pa
1 0 0 ,0

Ar

5 0 ,0
2 5 ,0
N e

1 0 ,0
5 ,0
H

2 ,5

p o w ie t r z e
N

1 ,0

H e

0 ,5
3

10

25

50

100

250

500

1000

T, K

Gas

eksperyment

Walsa

Argon

765

-----

Azot

604

837

Hel 3

39

-----

Hel 4

46

34,3

Neon

230

-----

Powietrze

650

895

Metan

953

-----

Tlen

771

1090

204,6

223

Wodr

V

T 0,p

pf V

## Free expansion (exhaust)

1.
2.

3.
4.

Non equilibrium process gas
pressure and external pressure are
not the same
Constant external pressure (pf=
const.)
External work against pressure pf

## Free expansion (exhaust)

Final gas temperature:
I Law of Thermodynamics

u f u0 p f (v f v0 )
where:
u0, uf initial and final gas internal energy
v0, vf initial and final gas volume

## Free expansion (exhaust)

For ideal gas:
u f u 0 c v (T f T0 )
p 0 v 0 RT0
p f v f RT f

c v R / 1

We get:

1 p f

T f To
T0
1

p0

T0
k

T f 1 p f / p 0 k 1

Comparison of the
processes for air

Cryogenic gas
refrigerators

Heat exchangers

Recuperative

Regenerative

Comparison of coolers

## Refrigerators with recuperative

heat exchangers
Joule Thomson refrigerators

## Examples of miniature JouleThomson refrigerator

Claude refrigerators

Stirling coolers

Stirling cooler

Stirling cooler

p
p

m ax

## In Stirling refrigerator a cycle consists

of two isotherms and two isobars
q

H2O

q H 2O
T0
1

3
p

T0

m in

T
R

## Stirling cycle is realized

in four steps :
1.
Step 1-2: Isothermal
gas compression in
warm chamber
2.
Step 2-3: Isochoric
gas cooling in
regenerator
3.
Step 3-4:Isothermal
gas expansion with
external work
4.
Step 4-1: Isochoric
gas heating in
regenerator

T
q H2O
2

T0
V

V
T

linear motor

## Efficiency of Stirling cooler

filled with ideal gas
Str

q
T

lc le T0 T

v2

v2
dv
l c RTo
RTo ln
v
v1
v1
v1

dv
v1
le RT
RT ln
v
v2
v2

v2
q RT ln
v1

Work of
isothermal
compression
Work of
isothermal
expansion
Heat of
isothermal
expansion

Stirlin
g
cooler
used
for air
liquefa
ct-ion

liquefaction

refrigerator

## Gifforda McMahon cooler

Four steps of McMahon cycle:
1.
Filling .
2.
Gas displacement
3.
Free exhaust of the gas
4.
Discharge of cold chamber
Efficiency of McMahon cooler:
T p1 / p 2 1
GM
To p1 / p 2 T ln p1 / p 2

McMahon refrigerator

Combination of McMahon
and J-T cooler, 250 mW at
2,5 K

V

T 0,p

pf V

cooler

## Development of pulse tube

coolers
Gifford, 1963,
rather curiosity that
efficient cooler
1983 orifice pulse
tube

## Dr. Zhu et. al., 1994,

multiply by-pass pulse
tube

## Comparison of Stirling and

orifice pulse tube cooler

## Pulse tube cooler for 77 K

applications
Weight:2.4 kg
Dimensions (l x w x h):11.4 x 11.4 x
22 cm
Capacity:2.5W @ 65K
Ultimate low temperature:35K
Input power2kW

Pulse tube

## Pulse tube configuration

of paramagnetic

Paramagnetic salts

Magnetic coolers

Magnetic cooler

## Magnetic cooler with

moving paramagnetic

## Three stage magnetic

cooler with magnetic
regenerator

Ceramic magnetic
regenerator material
Gd2O2S with an
average diameter of
0.35 mm for G-M and
pulse tube
cryocoolers.

Cooler efficiency at 80 K

Family of cryocoolers