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Size of Living Things

1 m = 100 cm = 1,000mm = 1,000,000 m = 1,000,000,000nm


1mm = 1000 m = 1000000nm
1 m = 1000nm

From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com

Click link for an


interactive
Size of Microscopic Thing
s
animation on Cells Alive.

Two Basic Types of Cells

Prokaryote

From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com

Eukaryote
Images: Prokaryotic cell diagram &
Eukaryotic cell diagram, M. Ruiz

Plasma Membrane
Separates the cell from its
environment.
Phospholipid molecules
oriented so that hydrophilic
water-loving heads directed
outward and hydrophobic
water-hating tails directed
inward.
Proteins embedded in two
layers of lipids (lipid bilayer).
Membrane is semi-permeable.

From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com

Diferencias de las archaeas

Prokaryotes - Cell Wall


Gram-Positive & Gram-Negative

From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com

Images: Sources Unknown

Prokaryotes - Cell Wall


From the peptidoglycan inwards all bacteria are very similar. Going
further out, the bacterial world divides into two major classes (plus a
couple of odd types). These are:

Gram Positive

From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com

Gram Negative

Images: Staph, Gram Stain, SPO Microbiology


Images, T. Port; E coli, Y tambe

Prokaryotes Plasma Membrane as a Barrier


Passive Diffusion
Is the diffusion of water
across a semi-permeable
membrane.
Environment surrounding
cells may contain amounts of
dissolved substances
(solutes) that are
- equal to
- less than
- greater than

those found within the cell.

From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com

Plasma
membrane

CELL
Liquid
environment
outside the cell.

Liquid
environment
inside the cell.

Images: Osmosis animation; Osmosis with RBCs, M. Ruiz

Plasma Membrane as a Barrier


ACTIVE TRANSPORT

How most molecules move across the plasma membrane.

Analogous to a pump moving water uphill.

Types of active transport are classified by type of energy used to drive molecules
across membranes.

ATP Driven Active Transport


Energy from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) drives substances across the plasma membrane with
the aid of carrier molecules.

From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com

Prokaryote Genetics
Nucleoid
Region of cytoplasm where prokaryotes genome is
located.
Usually a singular, circular chromosome.

Plasmid
Small extra piece of chromosome/genetic material.
5 - 100 genes
Not critical to everyday functions.
Can provide genetic information to promote:
- Antibiotic resistance
- Virulence factors
specifically influence
thrive)

(molecules produced by pathogen that


host's function to allow the pathogen to

- Promote conjugation

(transfer of genetic material between bacteria


through cell- to-cell contact)
From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com

Prokaryotes

From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com

Cell Division

Prokaryotes - Endospores
Dormant, tough, non-reproductive
structure produced by small number
of bacteria.
Resistant to radiation, desiccation,
lysozyme, temperature, starvation,
and chemical disinfectants.

An endospore stained bacterial smear of


Bacillus subtilis showing endospores as green
and vegetative cells as red.

Endospores are commonly found in


soil and water, where they may
survive for very long periods of time.

From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com

Image: Bacillus subtilis, SPO Science Image Library, Endospore


stain from Dr. Ronald E. Hurlbert, Microbiology 101 lab manual

Cell Shapes (Morphology)


Most bacteria are classifies according to shape:

1. bacillus = rod-shaped
2. coccus = spherical
3. Spiral Shaped

Acidithiobacillus

a. spirillum = spiral with rigid cell wall, flagella

Archaea

b. spirochete = spiral with flexible cell wall, axial


filament

Leptospirillum

There are many more shapes beyond these basic ones.


A few examples:

Coccobacilli = elongated coccal form

Filamentous = bacilli that occur in long threads

Vibrios = short, slightly curved rods

Fusiform = bacilli with tapered ends

From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com

Sulfobacillus

Crecimiento Microbiano
Refers to increase in the
number of microbes
(reproduction) rather than an
increase in size of the
microbe.
Result of microbial growth is
the colony = aggregation of
cells arising from single parent
cell.
The time required for growth
and reproduction is known as
the doubling or generation
time.
From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com

Doubling Time in Cell Count From Binary Fission


Generation
Number
0
1
2
3
4
5
10
20

Cell
Count
1
2
4
8
16
32
1,024
1,048,576

From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com

Bacterial Population Growth Curve

From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com

Image: Bacterial growth phases, Michal Komorniczak

Generation Time Under Optimal Conditions


Organism

Generation
Time

Bacillus cereus

28 min

Escherichia coli

12.5 min

Staphylococcus aureus (causes many types of infections)

27-30 min

Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

10-12 hrs

Archaea (Acidianus, Sulfolobus, Metallosphaera)

10-30 hrs

From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com

Microbial Nutrition
Organisms use a variety of nutrients for:

their energy needs


to build organic molecules & cellular structures.

Most common nutrients contain necessary


elements:

Carbon
Oxygen
Nitrogen
Hydrogen

These 4 elements make up 95% of dry weight


of bacterium.
The other 5% is composed of Calcium, Copper,
Iron, Magnesium, Manganese, Phosphorus and
Iron.
Other elements that are needed are
___________ __________.
These elements are needed in extremely
small amounts, can be obtained through water
intake.
From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com

Factors Influencing Microbial Growth


Nutrition
Oxygen
Temperature
pH
Osmotic Pressure

From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com

La vida en mundo desde 3.8 Ba

Los tres dominiones de vida

18

Microbes & Temperature


Proteins
Three-dimensional shape because of the
temperature sensitive hydrogen bonds.
These bonds will usually break at higher
temperatures, and protein become unfolded.
Denatured proteins lose function.
Cell Membrane
Also temperature sensitive.
Become brittle if temperature is too low.
If temperature too high, lipids will be more
liquid in form.
Outside membrane cannot preserve the
integrity of the cell and it will disintegrate.
From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com

Categories of Microbes Based on Temperature Range

Ambientes frios

GlaciardeFremont

TransportedeequipoaGlaciardeFremont

Taladrodehieloconequipotermal

Meet the Microbe!


Psychrophilic Alga: Chlamydomonas nivalis

From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com

Largest Image: Watermelon snow, Will Beback

Ambientes de alto calor

CalciteSprings,Yellowstone
Mt.Soufriere,Montserrat

ObsidianPool,Yellowstone
RealgarSprings,Yellowstone

Ambientes de bajo pH

Mina Morenci, Arizona


Mina Blackbird, Idaho

Mina Parys, Gales

Roaring Mountain, Yellowstone

Distribuicion de
algunos
microorganismos
segun su pH
(Adaptado de Madigan et
al., Brock Biology of
Microorganisms, 2003)

How does the geology influence the microbiology (or is it


the other way around?)

El geiser Cinder Pool

Ambientes radioactivos
INTEC666pool

QuickTime and a
TIFF decompressor
are needed to see this picture.

BiofilmonAL6061

Dualcorrosioncells
AcridineorangestainedAL

Al fondo de los oceanos

JAPEXsamplingintheNankaiTrough,Japan