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ALGEBR

A
The Set of Real
Numbers and
its Properties
Prepared by:
Engr. Sandra Enn
Bahinting

OUTLINE
REAL

NUMBERS

PROPERTIES

and CATEGORIES of
REAL NUMBERS

ALGEBRAIC

EXPRESSIONS

POLYNOMIALS

Algebra

REAL NUMBERS
Real Numbers are every number
Any number that you can find on the number line
It has two categories.

Algebra

The Real Number Line

thelinewhose points are thereal numbers

Order Property for Real Numbers


- if a is to the left of b on the number line, a
<b
- if a is to the right of b on the number line,
a>b

Algebra

The Real Number System Tree


Diagram
REAL NUMBERS
RATIONAL
NUMBERS
INTEGERS

WHOLE
NUMBERS
NATURAL
NUMBERS

IRRATIONAL
NUMBERS
Terminating and
Repeating
Decimals
Negative
Numbers

Zero

Non-Terminating
and
Non-repeating
Decimals

Algebra

Rational Numbers
A real number that can be written
as a fraction
Rational Numbers written in
decimal form are terminating or
repeating

Algebra

Example

-3/7
46 = 46/1
0.17 = 17/100
= 5

Repeating
= 0.5000
2/3 = 0.666666
9/7 = 1.285714285714

Terminating
3.56

Algebra

Integers
Integers are the whole
numbers and their opposites
Consist of the numbers
together with their negatives
and 0
Example:
6, -12, 0, 143, -836

Algebra
Types of Integers
Natural

Numbers (N) = counting from


1,2,3,4,5,
N = {1,2,3,4,5 }

Whole

Numbers(W) = natural numbers


including zero. They are 0,1,2,3,4,5..
W = {0,1,2,3,4,5..}
W=0+N

Negative

Numbers = {..,-4, -3, -2, -1 }

Algebra

Irrational Numbers
A number that cannot be written as a
fraction of two integers
Irrational numbers written as decimals are
non-terminating and non-repeating
Example:
= 1.414213562373095
= 3.14159265.

Algebra

Properties of REAL
NUMBERS
Closure Property
Let a, b, and c represent real numbers
1.

Algebra
2. Commutative Property

3. Associative Property

Algebra
4. Distributive Properties

5. Identity Property

6. Inverse Property

Algebra
Addition and Subtraction
Subtraction

= operation that undoes

addition
a - b = a + (-b)

Algebra

Multiplication and
Division

Division

= operation that undoes multiplication; to


divide by a number, we multiply by the inverse of
that number. If b 0, then, by definition

a b = a 1/b
= a/b (quotient)
Example:
6 3 = 6 1/3
= 6/3
=2

Algebra
Exponential Notation
If a is any real number and n is a positive integer, then the nth

power of a is

The number a is called the base, and n is called the exponent.

Algebra

Algebra
Algebraic Expressions

An algebraic expression is a constant, a variable or a


combination of variables and constants involving a
finite number of indicated operations on them.
(operations
such
as
addition,
subtraction,
multiplication, division, raising to a power and
extraction of a root).

It is a collection of numerals, variables and operation


symbols
Example:

a) 5

d ) 3 x 3z

b) 4 x

e)

c) xyz

x
3x
y

f ) 3 x y 3z

Terms:

Algebra

= a letter that can represent any number from a given set of


Variable

numbers.

Example: x, y, z

Constant= a number on its own, or sometimes a letter such as a, b or c


to stand for a fixed number

Monomial = an expression of the form , where a is a real number and k


is a nonnegative integer.
Example: 13, 3x, -57, x, 4y, -2xy, or 520xy

Binomial = a sum of two monomials


Example: 3x+ 1,x - 4x, 2x + y, ory-y

Trinomial = a sum of three monomials


Example

x2+ 2x+ 1,3x - 4x +10, 2x + 3y +2

Algebra
Polynomial

polynomial in the variable x is an expression of the form

where are real numbers, and n is a nonnegative integer. If 0, then the


polynomial has degree n. The monomials that make up the polynomial
are called the terms of the polynomial.

Algebra
Not a polynomial

Algebra
Coefficients
Coefficientis

of two types.

NumbersformNumerical coefficients
symbolsformliteral coefficients.
Example:
2xy = 2is the number or the Numerical coefficient
xy, the symbol, is the Literal Coefficient.
y
= Numerical coefficient is1
literal coefficient isy

Algebra
Multiplying Algebraic Expressions

Multiplying

Binomials

Example:
1.(2x+1) (3x-5)
2.(3t + 2)(7t 4)
3.(2r - 5s)(3r - 2s)
.
Multiplying

Example:
1.
2.
3.

Polynomials

Algebra

Special Products

Algebra

Example:
Sum and Difference
of same terms
Square of Sum
Square of Difference
Cube of Sum
Cube of Difference

Algebra
PASCAL TRIANGLE AND THE BINOMIAL THEOREM
The square of a binomial is a special case of the binomial
theorem, which gives a pattern for finding any positive integer
power of a binomial. The coefficient in the formula can be
found from the following array of numbers, known as Pascals
Triangle.

1
1 1
1 2 1
1 3 3 1
1 4 6 4 1

x y0 1

x y 1 x y
x y 2 x 2 2 xy y 2
x y 3 x3 3x 2 y 3xy 2 y 3

x y 4 x 4 4 x3 y 6 x 2 y 2 4 xy 3 y 4

Algebra

Algebra

Algebra