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Pertumbuhan Mikroba

Fisiologi Pertumbuhan
Kurva Pertumbuhan
Respirasi

Fisiologi Pertumbuhan Mikroba


Peningkatan
jumlah sel,
bukan ukuran
Satu sel
koloni (ribuan
sel)

Pertumbuhan Mikroba
Kontrol pertumbuhan:
infeksi
Industri dan bioteknologi

Faktor yang mempengaruhi


pertumbuhan
Nutrisi
Lingkungan:
temperatur, pH,
tekanan
osmosis
Generation time

Chemical Requirements
#1 = air
Elements
C (50% of cells dry weight) H, O, N, P, S
mineral
Organik
Sumber energi glukosa
Vitamin (koenzim)
Beberapa asam amino purin dan
pirimidin

Environmental Factors
Influencing Growth

Temperature
O2
pH
Osmotic Pressure
Others: radiation, atmospheric
pressure

Bacterial Division
Bacteria divide by binary fission
Alternative means
Budding
Conidiospores (filamentous
bacteria)
Fragmentation

Fig. 7.13

Generation Time
Time required for cell to divide/for
population to double
Average for bacteria is 1-3 hours
E. coli generation time = 20 min
20 generations (7 hours), 1 cell
becomes 1 million cells!

Standard Growth Curve

Phases of Growth
Lag phase making new enzymes
in response to new medium
Log phase exponential growth
Desired for production of
products
Most sensitive to drugs and
radiation during this period

Phases of Growth
Stationary phase
nutrients becoming limiting or
waste products becoming toxic
death rate = division rate
Death phase death exceeds
division

Measuring Growth
Direct methods count individual
cells
Indirect Methods measure effects
of bacterial growth

RESPIRASI
Aerob
Anaerob
Fermentasi

Catabolic Pathways and


Production of ATP
The breakdown of organic molecules is
exergonic
Fermentation is a partial degradation of
sugars that occurs without O2
Aerobic respiration consumes organic
molecules and O2 and yields ATP
Anaerobic respiration is similar to aerobic
respiration but consumes compounds other
than O2

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Cellular respiration includes both aerobic and


anaerobic respiration but is often used to refer to
aerobic respiration
Although carbohydrates, fats, and proteins are
all consumed as fuel, it is helpful to trace cellular
respiration with the sugar glucose
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy (ATP + heat)

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Stages of Cellular


Respiration: A Preview
Harvesting of energy from glucose has three stages

Glycolysis (breaks down glucose into


two molecules of pyruvate)
The citric acid cycle (completes the
breakdown of glucose)
Oxidative phosphorylation (accounts
for most of the ATP synthesis)
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 9.UN05

1. Glycolysis (color-coded teal throughout the chapter)


2. Pyruvate oxidation and the citric acid cycle
(color-coded salmon)
3. Oxidative phosphorylation: electron transport and
chemiosmosis (color-coded violet)

Figure 9.6-1

Electrons
carried
via NADH

Glycolysis
Glucose

Pyruvate

CYTOSOL

ATP
Substrate-level
phosphorylation

MITOCHONDRION

Figure 9.6-2

Electrons carried
via NADH and
FADH2

Electrons
carried
via NADH

Glycolysis
Glucose

Pyruvate

CYTOSOL

Pyruvate
oxidation
Acetyl CoA

Citric
acid
cycle

MITOCHONDRION

ATP

ATP

Substrate-level
phosphorylation

Substrate-level
phosphorylation

Figure 9.6-3

Electrons carried
via NADH and
FADH2

Electrons
carried
via NADH

Glycolysis
Glucose

Pyruvate

CYTOSOL

Pyruvate
oxidation
Acetyl CoA

Citric
acid
cycle

Oxidative
phosphorylation:
electron transport
and
chemiosmosis

MITOCHONDRION

ATP

ATP

ATP

Substrate-level
phosphorylation

Substrate-level
phosphorylation

Oxidative
phosphorylation

Katabolisme Protein dan Lipid