FEED BACK CONTROLERS

© All Rights Reserved

18 views

FEED BACK CONTROLERS

© All Rights Reserved

- ECS7 PID Controller
- The Effect of Pi and Pid Controllers on Flow Control System
- Chapter 1 - Introduction to Process Control (I-Learn)
- Automatic Tuning Of Proportional-Integral-Derivative (Pid) Controller Using Particle Swarm Optimization (Pso) Algorithm
- Cdn.intechweb.org Pdfs 29818
- clas01
- 2005_8
- 11-48
- HVAC Manual
- PID Control System Analysis and Design
- asme2e
- IJSET_2014_226
- IJMS 40(2) 200-206ff
- Manual de Streaming Current Sensor
- power system engineering
- p
- Xu Effects of a GPC-PID Control Strategy With
- Controlling the Pitch and Yaw Angles of Twin Rotor MIMO System_2014
- A Low Voltage Sensorless Switched Reluctance
- e5aktekt

You are on page 1of 49

Feedback Controllers

Chapter 8

Error Signal

e t R t B t

where

R t = set point (3-15 psig; 4-20mA; 1-5V)

(or equivalent signal from transmitter)

(3-15 psig; 4-20mA; 1-5V)

Define

e t e t 0; R t R t R ; B t B t B

0 R B e t R t B t

Take Laplace Transform

E s R s B s

Proportional Control

p (t ) p K c e(t ) p K c R (t ) B (t )

where

p (t ) controller output

p = bias value (adjustable)

K c controller gain (dimensionless, adjustable)

e(t ) error signal

Transfer Function

p t p t p

P s

Kc

Gc s

e t e t 0

E s

Chapter 8

Controller

Direct-Acting (Kc < 0): output increases

as input increases"

Reverse-Acting (Kc > 0): output increases

as input decreases"

Chapter 8

PB is the error (% of the range of controlled

variable) required to move the output from

its lowest to its highest value.

100%

PB

Kc

Chapter 8

Assume FT is direct-acting.

1.) Air-to-open (fail close) valve ==> ?

2.) Air-to-close (fail open) valve ==> ?

Consequences of wrong controller action??

Chapter 9

Chapter 8

Control valves are air-to-open

Level transmitters are direct acting

Question:

p 10 psig

in order to make qo 170 gpm

p 9 psig

qi qo at steady state

p t p Kce t

Kce 1

where K c 0

e R B 0

Chapter 8

1

p (t ) p e( )d

I 0

P( s )

1

E ( s ) I s

(1) If e(t ) 0, then p(t ) varies continuously with time.

(2) If e(t ) 0 for t t*, then

t*

1

p t ps p e( )d constant

I 0

Proportional-Integral (PI)

Controller

1

p(t ) p K c e(t ) e(t )dt

I 0

Transfer Function

P( s )

1

Kc 1

E ( s )

I s

Reset Time

Reset time is the time that the integral mode repeats the

action of proportional mode.

t I

t

t*

Example:

Heat Exchanger Control Loop

Reset Windup

e t 0

1

p (t ) p K c e(t ) e(t )dt

I 0

vp t vp K v p t p

p t

t

0

to

ts

Reset Windup

e t 0

e t 0

1

p (t ) p K c e(t ) e(t )dt

I 0

vp t vp K v p t p

p t

Action

de

p(t ) p D

dt

Used to improve dynamic response of the

controlled variable

Proportional-Integral-Derivative

(PID) Control

Now we consider the combination of the

proportional, integral, and derivative

control modes as a PID controller.

Many variations of PID control are used in

practice (see Table 8.1, page 194)

Next, we consider the three most common

forms.

The parallel form of the PID control algorithm

(without a derivative filter) is given by

1

p t p Kc e t

I

0 e t * dt *

Transfer Function

P s

1

K c 1

E s

I s

D s

de t

dt

Effects of Anticipatory

(Derivative) Control Action

Drawbacks of Anticipatory

(Derivative) Control Action

Chapter 8

Derivative Filter

P s

Ds

1

Kc 1

E s

I s D s 1

where

0.05 0.2 (usually 0.1)

One disadvantage of the previous PID

controllers is that a sudden change in set

point (and hence the error, e) will cause the

derivative term momentarily to become

very large and thus provide a derivative kick

to the final control element.

R t

p t

Proportional Kicks in ParallelForm Controllers

1

p t p Kc e t

I

or

dB

0 e t * dt * D dt

1

p t p Kc B t

I

dB

0 e t * dt * D dt

t

Historically, it was convenient to construct early analog controllers

(both electronic and pneumatic) so that a PI element and a PD element

operated in series. Commercial versions of the series-form controller

have a derivative filter that is applied to either the derivative term,

as in Eq. 8-12, or to the PD term, as in Eq. 8-15:

P s

s 1

D s 1

Kc I

E s

I

D 1

Series-Form Controllers

R s

B s

B s

I s 1

P s

R s D s 1 B s K c

versus

I s 1

P s

Is

R s B s K c D s 1

of PID Control

In addition to the well-known series and parallel forms,

the expanded form of PID control in Eq. 8-16 is sometimes

used:

t

de t

dt

p t p K c e t K I e t * dt * K D

Chapter 8

Chapter 8

Consider response of a controlled system after a

sustained disturbance occurs (e.g., step change in

disturbance variable)

Chapter 8

Chapter 8

Chapter 8

Automatic Mode

Controller output, p(t), depends on e(t), controller

constants, and type of controller used.

( PI vs. PID etc.)

Manual Mode

Controller output, p(t), is adjusted manually.

Manual Mode is very useful when unusual

conditions exist:

plant start-up

plant shut-down

emergencies

Percentage of controllers "on manual ??

(30% in 2001, Honeywell survey)

t n 1

D

p n p K c e n e k e n e n 1

I k 1

t

Chapter 8

where,

successive samples of the controlled variable)

p n = controller output at the nth sampling

instant, n=1,2,

e n = error at the nth sampling unit

velocity form - see Equation (8-19)

(pd)- incremental change

Chapter 8

Controller Comparison

P

-Offset with sustained disturbance or set point

change.

PI

-Better performance than P

-No offset

-Most popular FB controller

PID

-Better performance than PI

-No offset

-Derivative action may be affected by noise

Chapter 8

Commonly Used Controller Modes

1. Two Position:

Inexpensive.

Extremely simple.

2. Proportional:

Simple.

Inherently stable when properly tuned.

Easy to tune.

Experiences offset at steady state.

3. Proportional plus integral:

No offset.

Better dynamic response than reset alone.

Possibilities exist for instability due to lag

introduced.

Chapter 8

Stable.

Less offset than proportional alone (use of

higher gain possible).

Reduces lags, i.e., more rapid response.

5. Proportional plus reset plus rate:

Most complex

Rapid response

No offset.

Difficult to tune.

Best control if properly tuned.

Chapter 8

On-off Controllers

Simple

Cheap

Used In residential heating and domestic refrigerators

Limited use in process control due to continuous

cycling of controlled variable excessive wear

on control valve.

On-Off Controllers

Chapter 8

Synonyms:

two-position or bang-bang controllers.

Chapter 8

- ECS7 PID ControllerUploaded byhockchilato
- The Effect of Pi and Pid Controllers on Flow Control SystemUploaded byahedoooh
- Chapter 1 - Introduction to Process Control (I-Learn)Uploaded byLoong Taufiq
- Automatic Tuning Of Proportional-Integral-Derivative (Pid) Controller Using Particle Swarm Optimization (Pso) AlgorithmUploaded byAdam Hansen
- Cdn.intechweb.org Pdfs 29818Uploaded byOgunranti Rasaq
- clas01Uploaded bytestmobica13
- 2005_8Uploaded byMehmed Brkic
- 11-48Uploaded byNguyen Ninh
- HVAC ManualUploaded byWissam Jarmak
- PID Control System Analysis and DesignUploaded byAsghar Ali
- asme2eUploaded byJosé Mário Araújo
- IJSET_2014_226Uploaded byInnovative Research Publications
- IJMS 40(2) 200-206ffUploaded byMuhammad Yasar Javaid
- Manual de Streaming Current SensorUploaded byevrodriguez_1971
- power system engineeringUploaded byHaris Bin Khalid
- pUploaded byvikash
- Xu Effects of a GPC-PID Control Strategy WithUploaded byjajajaja21
- Controlling the Pitch and Yaw Angles of Twin Rotor MIMO System_2014Uploaded byKawshigan Kawshigan
- A Low Voltage Sensorless Switched ReluctanceUploaded byMarcoAlmeida
- e5aktektUploaded byYen Nguyen
- kp,ki,kdUploaded byNguyen Van Nang
- Control Engineering for Chemical EngineersUploaded byYoga Wiranoto
- Design of an Intelligent Controller for Armature Controlled DC Motor using Fuzzy Logic TechniqueUploaded byEditor IJRITCC
- OpenUploaded byAfzaal Ahmad Khan
- Residual Generation for Fault Diagnosis.pdfUploaded byANIAPIERONI
- 03540a6e3db7ba22415c549791d4815c484b.pdfUploaded byangelyn martinez
- Literature for PFRUploaded byKamran Ali
- 10.11648.j.acis.20130104.11Uploaded bymahendra
- Dc Motor ProjetUploaded byArT MgM
- PID ControllersUploaded byHải Nguyễn

- Chapter 14 AUploaded bysatya sagar
- Pdc Lab 2015-16 -HandoutUploaded bysatya sagar
- Pdc Lab 2014-15 -HandoutUploaded bysatya sagar
- Chapter 12 ChangUploaded bysatya sagar
- Chapter 9 ChangUploaded bysatya sagar
- Chapter 11 Chang.2Uploaded bysatya sagar
- Chapter 11 Chang.1Uploaded bysatya sagar
- Chapter 7 ChangUploaded bysatya sagar
- Go46 Revised Pay Scales APUploaded bysatya sagar

- Stemmer Understanding Camera Interface Standards Version 09 VisionUploaded bygoghie
- CP-ITV-D300Uploaded byNimol Nean
- Performance of Single User vs. Multiuser Modulation in Wireless Multicarrier (MC) CommunicationsUploaded bySinshaw Bekele
- 1design of JigUploaded byAdhi Thyan
- CAT 374 DL (ENG)Uploaded byArturo Arellano Alcaide
- mx321Uploaded byderickteo5971
- Plc AnalogUploaded byMarc Edwards
- HPE StoreOnce Catalyst Plug in 2.0.0 for SAP HANA User Guide EH991-10567 HANA UserGuideUploaded byKasidech Mahacharoenkeat
- Task 1 Warehouse Managing RobotUploaded bySarthakChauhan
- Fiber Backhaul Brochure CO-110368-EnUploaded byMohamed Ali
- Agmarknet Presentation 25-3-10 AmbalaUploaded byBabu Hasan
- Traffic Engineering ManualUploaded byahmad
- Metasploit-Pro-user-guide.pdfUploaded byjarihd
- Cyberspace and the Changing Nature of WarfareUploaded bySDFSDLFSDFSDF
- Flanged and Dished Head Ver 2.13Uploaded byIqbal Ahmads
- Asean Process Validation GuidelineUploaded byWilliam Chandra
- Trig Avionics M Eng Placement 2015 (1).pdfUploaded byPavel Ivan
- MuhammadAbdulRubKhanUploaded byMuhammad Abdulrab
- Control Panel LayoutUploaded byreddylogin
- Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Implantable Radiofrequency Transponder System for Patient Identification and Health InformationUploaded byJoseph Ford Jr.
- alcimed-construction-a-singapour-trad.pdfUploaded byninja
- JD Edwards EnterpriseOne Mapping Fields for Batch ProcessingUploaded bynick_bc688
- SAP BW_BI Consultant Resume PAUploaded byUpendra490
- PPAP Approval FormUploaded byNeco Stander
- Connecting Multiple SEL-849 Relays to a Single SEL-3421 or SEL-3422 HMI Through Use of a Communications Selector SwitchUploaded byjskegan
- 23.Agri Sci - Ijasr-Association Between Socio-Demographic Profile AndUploaded byTJPRC Publications
- Cellocator Wireless Communication Protocol v28 (Rev9)Uploaded byJorge
- Ftth en Europa11Uploaded bynitsui
- ADC083000Uploaded byyourcheers
- Questionnaire of PP.xlsUploaded byShamim Sarwar Pappu

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.