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# Chapter 8

Feedback Controllers

Chapter 8

Error Signal
e t R t B t
where
R t = set point (3-15 psig; 4-20mA; 1-5V)

## B t = measured value of controlled variable

(or equivalent signal from transmitter)
(3-15 psig; 4-20mA; 1-5V)
Define
e t e t 0; R t R t R ; B t B t B
0 R B e t R t B t
Take Laplace Transform
E s R s B s

Proportional Control
p (t ) p K c e(t ) p K c R (t ) B (t )
where
p (t ) controller output
K c controller gain (dimensionless, adjustable)
e(t ) error signal
Transfer Function
p t p t p
P s
Kc
Gc s
e t e t 0
E s

Chapter 8

## Reverse or Direct Acting

Controller
Direct-Acting (Kc < 0): output increases
as input increases"
Reverse-Acting (Kc > 0): output increases
as input decreases"

Chapter 8

## Proportional Band (PB)

PB is the error (% of the range of controlled
variable) required to move the output from
its lowest to its highest value.

100%
PB
Kc

Chapter 8

## Example 2: Flow Control Loop

Assume FT is direct-acting.
1.) Air-to-open (fail close) valve ==> ?
2.) Air-to-close (fail open) valve ==> ?
Consequences of wrong controller action??

Chapter 9

Chapter 8

## Example 3: Liquid Level Control

Control valves are air-to-open
Level transmitters are direct acting

Question:

## Type of controller action?

p 10 psig
in order to make qo 170 gpm
p 9 psig

p t p Kce t

Kce 1

where K c 0

e R B 0

Chapter 8

1
p (t ) p e( )d
I 0
P( s )
1

E ( s ) I s

## I : reset time (or integral time) - adjustable

(1) If e(t ) 0, then p(t ) varies continuously with time.
(2) If e(t ) 0 for t t*, then
t*

1
p t ps p e( )d constant
I 0

Proportional-Integral (PI)
Controller

1
p(t ) p K c e(t ) e(t )dt
I 0

## where p is not adjustable

Transfer Function

P( s )
1
Kc 1
E ( s )
I s

Reset Time
Reset time is the time that the integral mode repeats the
action of proportional mode.

t I

t
t*

Example:
Heat Exchanger Control Loop

Reset Windup

e t 0

1
p (t ) p K c e(t ) e(t )dt
I 0

vp t vp K v p t p

p t

t
0

to

ts

Reset Windup

e t 0
e t 0

1
p (t ) p K c e(t ) e(t )dt
I 0

vp t vp K v p t p

p t

## Anticipatory or Derivative Control

Action
de
p(t ) p D
dt
Used to improve dynamic response of the
controlled variable

Proportional-Integral-Derivative
(PID) Control
Now we consider the combination of the
proportional, integral, and derivative
control modes as a PID controller.
Many variations of PID control are used in
practice (see Table 8.1, page 194)
Next, we consider the three most common
forms.

## Parallel Form of PID Control

The parallel form of the PID control algorithm
(without a derivative filter) is given by

1
p t p Kc e t
I

0 e t * dt *

Transfer Function
P s

1
K c 1

E s
I s

D s

de t

dt

Effects of Anticipatory
(Derivative) Control Action

Drawbacks of Anticipatory
(Derivative) Control Action

Chapter 8

## Parallel-Form PID Controller with

Derivative Filter
P s

Ds
1
Kc 1

E s
I s D s 1

where
0.05 0.2 (usually 0.1)

## Derivative and Proportional Kicks

One disadvantage of the previous PID
controllers is that a sudden change in set
point (and hence the error, e) will cause the
derivative term momentarily to become
very large and thus provide a derivative kick
to the final control element.

R t

p t

## Elimination of Derivative and

Proportional Kicks in ParallelForm Controllers

1
p t p Kc e t
I

or

dB
0 e t * dt * D dt

1
p t p Kc B t
I

dB
0 e t * dt * D dt
t

## Series Form of PID Control

Historically, it was convenient to construct early analog controllers
(both electronic and pneumatic) so that a PI element and a PD element
operated in series. Commercial versions of the series-form controller
have a derivative filter that is applied to either the derivative term,
as in Eq. 8-12, or to the PD term, as in Eq. 8-15:
P s
s 1
D s 1
Kc I

E s

I
D 1

## Elimination of Derivative Kick in

Series-Form Controllers
R s
B s

B s
I s 1
P s

R s D s 1 B s K c
versus

I s 1
P s
Is

R s B s K c D s 1

## Expanded (Non-interacting) Form

of PID Control
In addition to the well-known series and parallel forms,
the expanded form of PID control in Eq. 8-16 is sometimes
used:
t

de t

dt

p t p K c e t K I e t * dt * K D

Chapter 8

Chapter 8

## Typical Response of Feedback Control Systems

Consider response of a controlled system after a
sustained disturbance occurs (e.g., step change in
disturbance variable)

Chapter 8

Chapter 8

## Automatic and Manual Control Modes

Chapter 8

Automatic Mode
Controller output, p(t), depends on e(t), controller
constants, and type of controller used.
( PI vs. PID etc.)
Manual Mode
Controller output, p(t), is adjusted manually.
Manual Mode is very useful when unusual
conditions exist:
plant start-up
plant shut-down
emergencies
Percentage of controllers "on manual ??
(30% in 2001, Honeywell survey)

## Digital PID Controller

t n 1
D
p n p K c e n e k e n e n 1
I k 1
t

Chapter 8

where,

## t = the sampling period (the time between

successive samples of the controlled variable)
p n = controller output at the nth sampling
instant, n=1,2,
e n = error at the nth sampling unit
velocity form - see Equation (8-19)
(pd)- incremental change

Chapter 8

Controller Comparison
P

## -Simplest controller to tune (Kc).

-Offset with sustained disturbance or set point
change.

PI

## -More complicated to tune (Kc, I) .

-Better performance than P
-No offset
-Most popular FB controller

PID

## -Most complicated to tune (Kc, I, D) .

-Better performance than PI
-No offset
-Derivative action may be affected by noise

Chapter 8

## Summary of the Characteristics of the Most

Commonly Used Controller Modes
1. Two Position:
Inexpensive.
Extremely simple.
2. Proportional:
Simple.
Inherently stable when properly tuned.
Easy to tune.
3. Proportional plus integral:
No offset.
Better dynamic response than reset alone.
Possibilities exist for instability due to lag
introduced.

Chapter 8

## 4. Proportional plus derivative:

Stable.
Less offset than proportional alone (use of
higher gain possible).
Reduces lags, i.e., more rapid response.
5. Proportional plus reset plus rate:
Most complex
Rapid response
No offset.
Difficult to tune.
Best control if properly tuned.

Chapter 8

On-off Controllers

Simple
Cheap
Used In residential heating and domestic refrigerators
Limited use in process control due to continuous
cycling of controlled variable excessive wear
on control valve.

## Example 1: Temperature control of jacketed vessel.

On-Off Controllers

Chapter 8

Synonyms:
two-position or bang-bang controllers.

Chapter 8