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Analogy

Test

Analogy
- this type is made of items consisting of
pair of words which are related to each
other.
- it is designed to measured the ability of
students to observed the pair relationship
of the first group to second group.

Rules and Regulation


With analogies, you are looking for similar
relationships, not similar meanings.
Analogy questions do not ask you to look for
words that have the same meaning as the word
in CAPITAL LETTERS.

For Example
SCISSORS : CUT ::
SLUGGISH : ENERGY ::
Agood "test sentence" would be:
Scissorsare used tocut.
____ are used to ____.
Sluggishmeans withoutenergy.
____means without____.

Another Example
Plug in the five choices and ask yourself which of the following
sentences makes the most sense:

(A) window : close


(B) spice : season
(C) cloth : weave
(D) mask : frighten
(E) country : vote

(A) The window is used to close.


(B) The spice is used to season.
(C) The cloth is used to weave.
(D) The mask is used to frighten.
(E) The country is used to vote.

Another Example
(A) sheer : clif
(B) reticent : tact
(C) inebriated : memory
(D) trite : speech
(E) satiated : hunger
(A) Sheer means without clif.
(B) reticent means without tact.
(C) inebriated means without memory.
(D) trite means without speech.
(E) satiated means without hunger.

When you make a "test sentence", remember the


following tips:
Try to make a definitional sentence because a definitional
sentence can best express the relationship between the two
words.
Keep the definitional sentence as short as possible while
maintaining a proper relationship.
Make sure you know what parts of speech are being tested.
Make your "test sentence" as specific as possible.
Be flexible.

Advantage
The following are some advantages of analogies:
1. They are valuable tools in conceptual change learning.
2. They provide visualization and understanding of the
abstract by pointing to similarities in the real world.
3. They may incite pupils' interest and hence have a
motivational effect.
4. They force the teacher to take into consideration pupils'
prior knowledge and may reveal misconceptions in
previously taught topics.

Suggestion for the construction


of Analogy type of test
1. The relationship of the first pair of word must be
equal to the relationship of the second
2. Distractor must be plausible, with correct options
to attract students while the process of obtaining
a correct answer is by logical elimination.
3. All option must be constructed in parallel
language.
4. Four more options must be included in each item
to minimize the chances of guessing.
5. Only homogeneous relationship must be
included in each item.

Tips in getting the right


answer in Analogy and
Logic:
Determine the thought and
relationship between the first set of
words
Apply the same thought and
relationship among the choices for
the next set of words

Examples

SYNONYM pretty: beautiful: big: huge


ANTONYM big: small: fast: slow
GROUP wolf: pack: tree: forest
CAUSE and EFFECT rain: flood: quake: sink-hole
SEQUENCE study: graduate: plant: harvest
CLASSIFICATION blue: color: pants: clothing
DEGREE warm: hot: cold: freezing
EFFORT and RESULT paint: painting: write: letter
PROBLEM and SOLUTION tired: sleep: itch: scratch
FUNCTION keyboard: to type: phone: to call

Analogy and Logic Question


and Answer
1. Iron: metal: granite: ______
marble
rock
sand
solid
2. Decibel: sound: volt: ______
watts
Fire
electricity
Lightning
3. Coward: brave: philanthropist: _______
selfish
kind
pessimist
optimist

4. Logic: reasoning: ethics: _______


character
behaviour
subject
traits
5. Antenna: signal: net: ______
web
catch
gross
fish

Answer
Rock
Electricity
Selfish
Behaviour
Fish