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UNIT IV

555 TIMER

555 Timer

It operates from a wide range of power supplies ranging from + 5 Volts to + 18 Volts supply
voltage.
Sinking or sourcing 200 mA of load current.
The external components should be selected properly so that the timing intervals can be made
into several minutes along with the frequencies exceeding several hundred kilo hertz.
The output of a 555 timer can drive a transistor-transistor logic (TTL) due to its high current
output.
It has a temperature stability of 50 parts per million (ppm) per degree Celsius change in
temperature, or equivalently 0.005 %/ C.
The duty cycle of the timer is adjustable.
The maximum power dissipation per package is 600 mW and its trigger and reset inputs has

Discharge (7)

Vcc (8)

Control Voltage (5)

Threshold Voltage (6)

COMP2

Ground (1)

T1

Flip-Flop
RESET

SET

Trigger Voltage (2)

COMP1

Reset (4)

Output (3)

Pin 1. Ground, The ground pin connects the 555 timer to the negative (0v) supply rail.
Pin 2. Trigger, The negative input to comparator No 1. A negative pulse on this pin sets the internal
Flip-flop when the voltage drops below 1/3Vcc causing the output to switch from a LOW to a HIGH
state.
Pin 3. Output, The output pin can drive any TTL circuit and is capable of sourcing or sinking up to
200mA of current at an output voltage equal to approximately Vcc 1.5V so small speakers, LEDs or
motors can be connected directly to the output.
Pin 4. Reset, This pin is used to reset the internal Flip-flop controlling the state of the output, pin 3.
This is an active-low input and is generally connected to a logic 1 level when not used to prevent any
unwanted resetting of the output.
Pin 5. Control Voltage, This pin controls the timing of the 555 by overriding the 2/3Vcc level of the
voltage divider network. By applying a voltage to this pin the width of the output signal can be varied
independently of the RC timing network. When not used it is connected to ground via a 10nF capacitor
to eliminate any noise.
Pin 6. Threshold, The positive input to comparator No 2. This pin is used to reset the Flip-flop when
the voltage applied to it exceeds 2/3Vcc causing the output to switch from HIGH to LOW state. This
pin connects directly to the RC timing circuit.
Pin 7. Discharge, The discharge pin is connected directly to the Collector of an internal NPN transistor
which is used to discharge the timing capacitor to ground when the output at pin 3 switches LOW.

Voltage across the capacitor at any instant during charging period is given as, vc=VCC(1-et/RC)
The time taken by the capacitor to charge from 0 to +1/3 V CC
1/3 VCC=VCC(1-et/RC)

or

t1= 0.405 RC
The time taken by the capacitor to charge from 0 to +2/3 V CC
2/3 VCC=VCC(1-et/RC)

or

t2= 1.0986 RC
So the time taken by the capacitor to charge from +1/3 V CCto +2/3 VCC
t= (t2 t1) = (10986 0.405) RC = 0.693
RC
Substituting R = (RA+ RB) in above equation we have

The time during which the capacitor discharges from +2/3 VCCto +1/3 VCCis equal to the time the output is low
and is given as
vc= 2/3 VCCet/RC
Substituting vc= 1/3 VCCand t = tofin above equation we have +1/3 VCC= +2/3 VCCet/RC
Or t= 0.693 RC

T = THIGH+ TLOW= 0.693 (RA+ 2RB) C


f = 1/T = 1.44/ (RA+ 2RB)C
% duty cycle, D = ton/ T * 100 = (RA+ RB) / (RA+ 2RB) * 100

THIGH= Ton
TLOW= Tof

vc= VCC(1- e-t/RC)

vc= 1/3 VCC


vcc= 2/3 VCC
1/3VCC = 2/3VCC et/RC)

T = t = 1.0986 RC

Sinking and Sourcing the 555 Timer Output

APPLICATIONS OF 555 TIMER IN ASTABLE MODE


Pulse Position Modulator
FSK Generator

Applications Of 555 Timer In Monostable Mode Of Operation

Missing pulse detector


Linear ramp generator
Frequency divider
Pulse width modulation.

Applications Of 555 Timer

Oscillator
Pulse Generator
Ramp and Square Wave Generator
Mono-shot Multivibrator
Burglar Alarm
Traffic Light Control

Detail Analysis of a 555


Oscillator
5v
3.333
v
1.666
v

Vc

0v

RESET

HIGH
LOW

SET

HIGH
LOW

T1

HIGH
LOW

ON
OFF

HIGH

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Detail Analysis of a 555


Oscillator
5v

3.333
v

Vc

1.666
v
0v

RESET

HIGH
LOW

SET

HIGH
LOW

HIGH
LOW

T1

ON
OFF

HIGH
LOW

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Detail Analysis of a 555


Oscillator
5v

3.333
v
1.666
v

Vc

0v

RESET

HIGH
LOW

SET

HIGH
LOW

T1

HIGH
LOW

ON
OFF

HIGH
LOW

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Detail Analysis of a 555


Oscillator
5v
3.333
v

Vc

1.666
v

OUTPUT IS HIGH WHILE THE


CAPACITOR IS CHARGING THROUGH
RA + RB.

0v

RESET

HIGH
LOW

SET

HIGH
LOW

HIGH
LOW

T1

ON
OFF

OUTPUT IS LOW WHILE THE


CAPACITOR IS DISCHARGING
THROUGH RB.

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555 Timer Design Equations


tHIGH : Calculations for the Oscillators HIGH Time

VInitial 1 - e RC VInitial

VC VFinal

RC
2
1
V

1
e

31 VCC
3
3
CC
CC
CC

VCC VCC 1 - e RC 31 VCC

t
2
1

3 VCC 3 VCC

RC

1
e

2
V

3
CC
t

2
3

2
3

1 - e RC

1
2

1 - e RC

1
2

21 e

t
RC

ln ln e RC

t
0.693
RC
t HIGH 0.693 R C
t

1
2

t HIGH 0.693 R A RB C
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555 Timer Design Equations


tLOW: Calculations for the Oscillators LOW Time

VC VInitial

VFinal e RC

RC
1
2

3 VCC 3 VCC 0 e

RC
1
2
V

3
3
CC
CC

t
1

3 VCC

RC
e
2

3 VCC
t

e RC

1
2

1
ln 2 ln e RC

t
0.693
RC
t LOW 0.693 R
t

t LOW 0.693 RB C

e RC

1
2

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555 Timer Period / Frequency /


DC
Period:
t HIGH 0.693 R A RB C
t LOW 0.693 RBC
T t HIGH t LOW
T 0.693 R A RB C 0.693 RBC
T 0.693 R A 2RB C

Duty Cycle:

Frequency:

t
DC HIGH 100%
T

0.693 R A RB C
DC
100%
0.693 R A 2RB C

DC

R
R

1
T
1

0.693 R A 2RB C

RB
100%
2RB

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Example: 555 Oscillator


For the 555 Timer oscillator shown below, calculate the circuits, period (T), frequency (F),
and duty cycle (DC).

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Example: 555 Oscillator


Solution:

R A 390

RB 180

C 6.8 F

Period:

T 0.693 R A 2RB C

Frequency:

T 0.693 390 2 180 6.8 F

1
F
T
1
3.534 mSec
F 282.941Hz
F

T 3.534 mSec
Duty Cycle:

R R 100%
R 2R
390 180 100%
DC
390 2 180
DC

DC 76%

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Example: 555 Oscillator


For the 555 Timer oscillator shown below, calculate the value for R A & RB so that
the oscillator has a frequency of 2.5 KHz @ 60% duty cycle.

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Example: 555 Oscillator


Solution:
Frequency:

Duty Cycle:

1
1

400 Sec
f 2.5 kHz
T 0.693 R A 2RB C 400 Sec
T

T 0.693 R A 2RB 0.47 f 400 Sec


R A 2 RB

400 Sec
1228.09
0.693 0.47 f

R A 2 RB 1228.09

DC

R
R

R
R

RB
100% 60%
2RB

RB
0 .6
2RB

R A RB 0.6 R A 2RB
R A R B 0 .6 R A 1 .2 R B
0.4 R A 0.2 RB
R A 0 .5 R B

Two Equations & Two Unknowns!

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Example: 555 Oscillator


Solution:
Frequency:

Duty Cycle:

R A 2 RB 1228.09

R A 0 .5 R B

Substitute and Solve for RB

R A 2 RB 1228.09
0.5 RB 2 RB 1228.09
2.5 RB 1228.09
RB 491.23
Substitute and Solve for R A

R A 2 RB 1228.09

R A 2 491.23 1228.09
R A 982.472 1228.09
R A 245.618
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