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System Development Life Cycle

System Development Life Cycle


In the present booming economical environment
every organization plans to expand and develop
quick system and encash economic boom, as soon
as possible.
This require a process which can quickly develop
new systems, in lesser time with lesser cost.

What is SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT ?


System Development refers to the process of
Examining a business situation,
With the intent of improving it,
Through better procedures and methods.
System Development is having two major component in it
System Analysis Analysis of current system for Problems &
Demerits in it and Additional requirements in new system
System Design Process of planning new system which will
replace the old one

Beginning of a System Development


System Development usually begins when a problem or opportunity is
identified by Managers, it can be because of any of the followings:
New design idea to smoothen the process in the organization.
Evolving environmental changes such as Competition.
Adding new business or product line to present business.
Present system does not satisfy the users information needs.
Present system no longer efficiently and effectively meets the
Goals of organization.
Excessive time spent in correcting errors.
Current Reports / Outputs not meting users decision making skills.
Escalating customer and vendor complaints.

System Development Methodology


A system development methodology is a formalized,
standardized, documented set of activities used to manage a
system development project. It can be characterized as follows:

DIVISION OF PROJECT into the identifiable phases which can be


managed without having any problem.
REVIEW OF DEVELOPMENT PROCESS by TOP Management on
periodically by getting deliverables.
APPROVALS from all the participants of the Development (i.e. Users,
Managers, Analyst and Auditors).
TESTING OF SYSTEM thoroughly prior to implementation to ensure that
it meets users needs.
TRANNING of user who will operate the new system.
POST IMPLEMENTATION REVIEW for effectiveness and efficiency of
new system

System Development Life Cycle


In an organization System Development Object
can be achieved by following steps:

Preliminary Investigation
Requirements analysis or system analysis
Design of System
Development of Software
System Testing
Implementation and Maintenance

Preliminary Investigation

Preliminary Investigation

Whatever may be the reason of a request submitted by the Users or


Managers to the IS department a system analyst is assigned to make a
preliminary investigation.
The objective of this activity is to review all requests and identify
those proposals that are most beneficial to the organization. But this
should be noted that this is neither a designed study nor it includes
collection of details to completely describe the business system.
Preliminary Investigation object can be achieved in following steps:
Request Clarification
Feasibility study
Estimating Costs and Benefits
Request Approvals

Request Clarification

Preliminary Investigation

Defining the Scope and Objective of Request:


As mentioned in the objectives of System development
objective earlier, an analyst has to define for which objective
a request for development is submitted.
Conducting the Investigation
This is nothing but the Collection of data / inputs by:
Reviewing internal documents (i.e Organizational Charts,
operating procedures etc.
Conducting interviews of User, Supervisory Personal and
Managers
Identify viable option:
Analyst has to identify the viable option by applying his
common sense and intuitions on his investigation

Preliminary Investigation

Feasibility (Possibility) Study

Evaluation of alternative systems through cost and benefit analysis:


Technical Feasibility: Hardware and software availability,
Technical Guarantee of Accuracy, Reliability, Easy to Access, Data
security, technical capacity to hold data and future expansion.
Economical Feasibility: Evaluation of cost & Benefits expected.
Operational Feasibility: Finding views of workers, employees,
customers & suppliers about the use of new system.
Schedule Feasibility: Estimation of time to take new system to
become operational.
Legal feasibility: Testing whether new system will comply financial
reporting requirements & Companys contractual obligations.

Preliminary Investigation

Estimating Cost & Benefit


COSTS:
Development Costs: This includes cost of testing, training, start
up costs, salary to designers, acquisition cost of hardware &
software.
Operation Costs: This includes operator salary, maintenance
costs, etc.
Intangible Costs: Loss of employee productivity, self confidence
etc.

Image of Business

BENEFITS:
Tangible Benefits:
Increase in sales / Contribution / Profits
Decrease in investment, operating and processing cost.
Improved information availability, analysis,
Management Decision skill
Intangible Benefits:
Increase in Goodwill / Improved

Preliminary Investigation

Request Approval
Based on the Observation and Findings of the
Analyst, selected requests are put up for the approval
of management

Requirement Analysis & System Analysis

Requirement Analysis and


System Analysis

After the selection of a request for development analyst study


in depth the Present and Proposed New System. This is the
study of weakness & Problems in the present system and
management requirements of new system.
This phase of System Development is being completed in
following step:
Collection of data and facts
Analysis of Present System
Analysis of Proposed system

Requirement Analysis & System Analysis

Collection of Data & Facts

Every system is built to meets some set of needs and to assess these
needs, the analyst often interact extensively with the people, who
will be benefited from the system.In order to determine the
requirement of those peoples he can use following facts finding
techniques:
Documents: This includes the Manuals, diagrams, forms,
organizational charts etc. It should be ensured that all documents are
accurate & up to date
Questionnaires: These are skillfully drafted group of standard
question which can be given to all personal and can be analyze
quickly.
Interviews: To get a complete picture of problems and opportunities.
Observation: Surprise Visit of users work palace to get a clear
picture of users environment.

Requirement Analysis & System Analysis

Analysis of Present System


Detailed investigation of the present system involves collecting,
organizing and evaluating facts about the present system and the
environment in which it operates by studying following areas in depth:
Review of Historical Aspects of organization
Analyze Present inputs to the system
Review of all data file maintained irrespective of online or
offline
Review methods, procedures & data communications
Analyze Present outputs of system
Review internal controls
Model the existing physical system and logical system
Undertake overall analysis of present system

Requirement Analysis & System Analysis

Analysis of Proposed System


After each functional area of present system is defined the
purposed system specification must be defined.
These specification will be based on the strength and weakness of
present system.
System Specification which should be in conformity with the
Project Objective and Areas Covered should be following:
Output / Reports
Maintenance of Database
Data Inputting Process
Methods and Procedures to show the relationship between
Input and Output
Work volume including peak period work volume

System Design

System Design

System design first involves Logical Design. First one


has to write detailed specification that called design
specification. Than secondly it involves Physical Design.
This Phase of System Development includes following
functions:
Designing System Output
Designing System Input
Data Storage

System Design

Designing System Output


Important factor of Output Design:
A process of Output designing contained Designing of Content
(required info in an output), Form (the way in which a content
presented to user), Volume (quantum of Output i.e. Prints), Time
Lines (time of need of outputs), Media (method of output i.e. Print,
CD etc) and Format (Physical arrangement of Data).
Way of Presenting Information:
The way in which data will be presented to the User which should
be simple and better understandable and for this Tabular and
Graphic (charts, maps etc) can be used.
Design / Layout of Output:
The layout of a output can be in Printed form, visual on screen etc.

Designing of System Input

System Design

Important Factor of Input Design:


A process of Input designing contained Designing of Content
(required info in a input), Form (the media in which input is received
by user), Volume (quantum of input records), Time Lines (required
time to enter one record), Media (method of input i.e. keyboard, BCR
etc) and Format (Input by the user in the system).
Coding: To reduce input control errors and speed up the entire
process coding is very important. This is also important to get all
records in a specific form.
Methods: Individually (Unique codes giving only one option to user out
of may i.e selection of gender from male or Female etc), Space or
suggestive (for brief information),
Schemes: Classification Codes (only single digit is required for quick
input the ), Function code (activities to be performed without spelling
out all details) etc.

System Design

Data Storage
This includes the storage of data, indexing etc.
For storage of data it can follow following approaches:
Conventional File Approach: This is a traditional approach
where each transaction is updated in the master file, each
application have their own database and it is not useful for
other applications. (Boss in IHCL)
Database Approach: This support decision making skill of
the management. Data are stored in the small-small database
files and same data can be used in the multiple applications.
(Files maintained as a process of the organization for MIS etc.)

System Acquisition & Development

System Acquisition & Development


After designing the system all required resources (hardware
& Software) should be gathered. If some of them are already
with the organization than it reduces the cost of acquisition,
for remaining items organization has to plan its procurements
process, this includes following:
Selection of Hardware:
Selection of Software
Vendor Selection

System Acquisition & Development

Selection of Hardware

While selecting the hardware for new system a developer must


keep in mind following:
Latest Technology
Whether requirement of business is for Scientific or Business
Computer
Software supplied by the manufacture and requirement of
additional software
Compatible with the existing systems in organization

System Acquisition & Development

Selection of Software
Selection of a perfect Software for organization is totally
depends on the followings:
Rapid Implementation: Whether software can be
implemented quickly and put on use ASAP. This characteristic
will not be there if software is to be developed, hence that will
take long time.
Low Risk of Quality: Software should be properly tested by
the manufacturer for the quality otherwise organization has to
spend its precious time on quality assurance.
Low Risk of Cost: The cost and benefit analysis will give us
the perfect cost, which organization can bear for acquiring the
given software.

System Acquisition & Development

Vendor Selection
This is finding of resources from new system hardware and
software will be procured.
At resource will be finalized based on the following:
Performance Capability in relation to cost and quality:
Cost & Benefits: Preparation of comparative statements based
on the quotations received from vendors with terms and
conditions.
Maintainability: Maintenance requirements of the new
equipments
Compatibility with the Existing system:
Vendor support: Post sale support from vendors

System Testing

System Testing
This is Performing Parallel Operation and get the following
done to analyze the operational implementation feasibility:
Preparation realistic data based on the actual working data of
the organization. It may be based on the Historical data of the
organization.
Processing of Test Data with the new system and take all
outputs which can be possible.
Checking result of all system with the results of the same data
in the current system for the accuracy and error in the
processing.
Review result with future users, operational and support
personal:

Implementation & Maintenance

Implementation & Maintenance


As the final Phase of the System Development it gives the
results of the whole process and handover the new system to
end users.
This also includes the overall review of the development process
for its leakages and errors in it.
To complete this phase a developer has to complete the
following functions successfully:

Equipment Installation
Training Personnel:
Conversion Procedure:
Post Implementation Evaluation (Feedback)

Implementation & Maintenance

Equipment Installation
This includes following functions:
Site Preparation: Preparing the site for installation and
mobilizing all required equipments and personnel at the site.
Equipment Installation: Assembling and commissioning of
the equipments (hardware) and installation of software
Equipment Checkout: Organize test runs of the system with
sample actual data and thereafter if it performs satisfactory
than with the live actual data.

Implementation & Maintenance

Training Personnel
Since user are not familiar with the New System, System
Development Process includes training of System Operators: IT personnel who will handle the system
maintenance in the future.
Users (Operators): The final user who will work on the
system.
If there are deficiencies in Training, these may translate into
reduction in user Productivity Levels

Implementation & Maintenance

Conversion Procedures
This is the time when organization switch over from old
system to new developed system.
Following are the Strategies / Methods for conversion /
Changeover of old system to new system.
Direct Changeover: Direct closing the old system and
starting the new one.
Parallel Changeover: for sometime operating both system
simultaneously.
Gradual Changeover: Department wise switch over to new
systems.
Distributed Changeover: Any other method which
management feels good for organation.

Post Implementation Evaluation (Feedback)


Analysis of Satisfaction of Users or checking whether
system is Operating Properly or whether Objectives of
System Development is achieved or not, is the most
important function in whole System Development process.
This is also important for development of new system in
future since each development gives some experiences and
lists some things to be taken care off.
Post Implementation Evaluation includes following area:
Development Evaluation: Check whether development
was done within schedule and budgets.
Operation Evaluation: Check whether system is capable
for handling the duties and objective of development is
achieved
Information Evaluation: Check Satisfaction of users etc.