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MARGARET NEWMANS

THEORY OF HEALTH AS EXPANDING


CONSCIOUSNESS

MARGARET NEWMAN

Dr. Newman studied nursing at


the University of Tennessee,
Memphis
She received her graduate
degree at the University of
California in medical-surgical
nursing, and received her
masters degree in 1964.
She earned her PhD at New York
University in 1972, where she
studied with Martha Rogers

MARGARET NEWMAN

She served as a director of


nursing at a clinical research
center, and taught nursing at
Penn State University (19771984) and at University of
Minnesota (1984-1996)
In 1978 Dr. Newman began to
articulate her ideas on the
theory of health in nursing.

INFLUENCES

Martha Rogers theory of Unitary Human


Beings was the main basis of the
development of her theory, Health as
Expanding Consciousness

INFLUENCES
Defined

energy fields as the


fundamental unit of living things
Person, family and environment exist as
an interconnected, unitary whole

INFLUENCES

Itzhak Bentov The concept of evolution of


consciousness
Arthur Young The Theory of Process
David Bohm The Theory of Implicate Health
as Expanding Consciousness

The theory asserts that every person in every


situation, no matter how disordered and
hopeless it may seem, is part of the universal
process of expanding consciousness a
process of becoming more of oneself, of
finding greater meaning in life, and of
reaching new dimensions of connectedness
with other people and the world.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

Movement essential property of matter and


the change that occurs between two states
of rest
Time - relate the rhythm of living
phenomena
Timing - recognized as important in the
provision of nursing care, particularly in
home health
Space - discussed in conjunction with time
and movement and not defined separately

DEFINITION OF TERMS

Pattern depicts the whole and is characterized by


movement, diversity, and rhythm
Parts

of a persons underlying pattern, that emerge from


interaction:

Physical signs and appearances


Mental/Cognitive Insights
Emotional Expressions
Spiritual Insights

People

with similar life experiences will have similar


patterns. - You can recognize a pattern between the
patterns of similar people. This is helpful for nursing
(Brown, 2011).
The focus of pattern recognition should be the process of
the evolving pattern, rather than the pattern itself
(Pharris, 2011).

DEFINITION OF TERMS

Consciousness - is the information of the system;


the capacity of the system to interact with the
environment.

Includes cognitive awareness, but also the awareness of


the interconnected living system - including the immune
system and physiological/chemical system (Brown, 2011).

Expanding consciousness (A pattern of the whole):


the view of one's disease as the evolving pattern of
the person-environment interaction, and not a
separate entity of the body (Yamashita, 1999). The
process of becoming more in touch with one's self,
finding meaning in one's life, and becoming more
connected with others (Pharris, 2010).

DEFINITION OF TERMS

Pattern recognition occurs within the


observer
Choice points - occurs when the old ways of
doing things no longer work and new answers
must be sought

ASSUMPTIONS

Health is a unitary process. This means both


health and illness are a single process, which
is referred to as "the pattern of the whole".
(Yamashita, 1999)
Disease can be considered a manifestation of
the total pattern of the individual.
The pattern of the individual that eventually
manifests itself as a disease is primary and
exists prior to structural or functional
changes

ASSUMPTIONS

Removal of the disease in itself will not


change the pattern of the individual
If becoming ill is the only way an individual's
pattern can manifest itself, then that is
health for that person.
Health is an expansion of consciousness.

BELIEFS

The nurse's responsibility is not to cure an


individual's disease or illness, but rather to
prevent further sickness, assist in the recognition
of their own power within themselves with the
goal to achieve a higher level of consciousness
(Pharris, 2010).
Consciousness is an important "process of
becoming more of oneself, of finding greater
meaning in life, and of reaching new heights of
connectedness with other people and the world.
(Newman et. al., 2008)
Health is a transforming process to higher levels
of consciousness. (Newman et al., 2008)

NURSING PARADIGM

HEALTH
Health

and illness are synthesized as health - the


fusion on one state of being (disease) with its opposite
(non-disease) results in what can be regarded as
health.
Synthesis of disease and non disease (Brown, 2011).
Newman has stated that pattern recognition is the
essence of the emerging health. Manifest health,
encompassing disease and non-disease can be regarded
as the explication of the underlying pattern of personenvironment (Newman, 1998).
Rather than being the opposite of illness, health
includes patterns of disease and is an evolving unitary
pattern of the whole (Pharris, 2011)

NURSING PARADIGM

NURSING
Nursing

is caring in the human health


experience.
Nursing is seen as a partnership between the
nurse and client, with both grow in the sense of
higher levels of consciousness
The aim of nursing practice is to assist people to
recognize the power that is within them to move
to higher levels of consciousness (Endo, 2004).
Help clients get in touch with the meaning of
their lives by the identification of their patterns
of relating (Madani et. al., 2009).

NURSING PARADIGM

NURSING
The

nurses presence allows clients to recognize their


own patterns of interacting with the environment
(Madani et. al., 2009).
Facilitates pattern recognition in clients by
communicating and forming relationships with them at
integral stages in their lives in a meaningful way
(Madani et. al., 2009).
Nursing as a unitary and transformative process. The
nursing phenomenon is not a series of discrete works
but a dynamic, unfolding process in the client- nurse
relationship (Endo, 2004).
Nurses are partners in the process of expanding
consciousness (Madani et. al., 2009).

NURSING PARADIGM

ENVIRONMENT
Environment

is described as a universe of open systems

PERSONS
The

human is unitary, that is cannot be divided into


parts, and is inseparable from the larger unitary field.
Persons as individuals and human beings as a species are
identified by their patterns of consciousness
Persons are centers of consciousness within an overall
pattern of expanding consciousness
Identified by their individual patterns of consciousness.
"Does not possess consciousness but is consciousness".
The definition of person also includes family and
community.

DESCRIPTION OF THE THEORY

The theory of health as expanding consciousness (HEC)


was stimulated by concern for those for whom health as
the absence of disease or disability is not possible.
Nurses often relate to such people: people facing the
uncertainty, debilitation, loss and eventual death
associated with chronic illness. The theory has
progressed to include the health of all persons
regardless of the presence or absence of disease. The
theory asserts that every person in every situation, no
matter how disordered and hopeless it may seem, is
part of the universal process of expanding consciousness
a process of becoming more of oneself, of finding
greater meaning in life, and of reaching new dimensions
of connectedness with other people and the world

DESCRIPTION OF THE THEORY

The manifestation of disease depends on the


pattern of individual so the pathology of the
diseases exists before the symptoms appear
so removal of disease symptoms does not
change the individual structure.
Humans are open to the whole energy system
of the universe and constantly interacting
with the energy. With this process of
interaction humans are evolving their
individual pattern of whole.

DESCRIPTION OF THE THEORY

Newman also redefines nursing according to


her nursing is the process of recognizing the
individual in relation to environment and it is
the process of understanding of
consciousness.
Time and space are the temporal pattern of
the individual, both have complementary
relationship.
Humans are constantly changing through
time and space and it shows unique pattern
of reality.

EVOLVING PATTERN OF THE


NURSE-CLIENT PROCESS

Connecting with the Family


Forming a Partnership for the Interview
Creating a Sense of Freedom for Limitless
Expression
Feeling a Sense of Timelessness for
Awareness and Insights
Resonating with each other as one for
Transformation

CONCLUSION

Newman's theory can be conceptualized as


A

grand theory of nursing


Humans cannot be divided into parts
Health is central to the theory and is seen and
is seen as a process of developing awareness of
self and the environment
Consciousness is a manifestation of an evolving
pattern of person-environment interaction

THEORY APPLIED TO NURSING

Nurses must strive for pattern


recognition and knowing the patient
on a deep level
Nurse client relationship often
begins in times of disruption,
uncertainty, and unpredictability
Newman recognizes that nurses are
change by their interactions with
patients, just as patients are changed
by their interactions with the nurses.

THEORY APPLIED TO NURSING

Newmans model of Health is useful in the


practice of nursing because it contained
concepts used by the nursing profession.
Movement and time are an intrinsic part
of nursing intervention, that is, range-ofmotion, ambulation, turning, coughing,
and deep- breathing. These parameters
are used each day by the nurse in
practice.

THEORY APPLIED TO NURSING

The nurse is to help the client look for


patterns in their life and together help the
client conceptualize such patterns pertaining
to the relationships in their lives.
They are to act as a mirror for the client to
recognize their pattern. This is done by
listening to clients recollections, stories and
descriptions of their life and illustrating
these patterns to the client.By
acknowledging and altering this pattern, one
can develop a higher level of consciousness.

THEORY APPLIED TO NURSING

A nurse should help the client reflect on


what is meaningful in their lives, so that the
nurse can value these things as well. In order
to be successful in nursing, one must
establish a connection with the patient. Each
patient is different, therefore each nurseclient relationship must be unique to be
effective for health to ultimately be
achieved.

THEORY APPLIED TO NURSING

When nurses engage with people in dialogue


focused on meaning, they hold no judgment
of good or bad, right or wrong (Pharris,
2011).
Nurses regard whatever arises in the evolving
pattern in the lives of individuals, families,
and communities with a nonjudgmental,
authentic presence (Pharris, 2011).

STRENGTHS

Provokes a therapeutic nurse intervention.


Interconnection

between nurse and client occurs once


both nurse and client are aware of ones own energy as
to establish interaction between each others energy
fields. This authenticity of the relationship prompts for
a caring intervention by the nurse. (Tall & Yamashita,
1998)

Can be applied to a multitude of situations.


Health

is a state of being with or without the presence


of disease. A pattern is always developed within an
individual that can become interrupted in which a
choice point occurs. As a result, a movement between
levels of consciousness occurs(Newman, 1999).

LIMITATIONS

Theory is abstract.
Although

Newman's theory has been highly


accepted and valued in the academic society, the
lack of physical or concrete existence of her
beliefs makes it difficult for individuals to
accept(Newman, 1999)

Research on theory is qualitative.


This

can create some misinterpretations of the


theory resulting in incorrect results. Additionally,
results can be influenced by the researcher's
personal biases(Newman, 1999)

REFERENCE

Jones, D. A. (2006). Newmans health as expanding


consciousness [Electronic version]. Nursing Science Quarterly,
19(4), 330-332.
Moch, S. D. (1998). Health within illness: concept
development through research and practice [Electronic
version]. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 28(2), 305-310.
Neill, J. (2002). Transcendence and transformation in the life
patterns of women living with rheumatoid arthritis [Electronic
version]. Advances in Nursing Science, 24(4), 27-47.
Newman, M. A. (2010). Overview. In Health as expanding
consciousness. Retrieved March 22, 2010, from
http://healthasexpandingconsciousness.org/home/index.php?
option=com_content &task=view&id=5&Itemid=6
Newman, M. A. (2003). A world of no boundaries [Electronic
version]. Advances in Nursing Science, 26(4), 240-245.

REFERENCE

Newman. M. A. (2002). The pattern that connects [Electronic


version]. Advances in Nursing Science, 24(3), 1-7.
Pharris, M. D. (2005). Margaret A. Newmans theory of health as
expanding consciousness and its applications. In M. E. Parker (Ed.),
Nursing theories and nursing practice (2nd ed.). (pp. 217-233).
Philadelphia: F. A. Davis.
Pharris, M. D. (2002). Coming to know ourselves as a community
through a nursing partnership with adolescents convicted of murder
[Electronic version]. Advances in Nursing Science, 24(3), 21-42.
Pharris, M. D. and Endo, E. (2007). Flying free: the evolving nature
of nursing practice guided by the theory of health as expanding
consciousness [Electronic version].Nursing Science Quarterly, 20(2),
136-140.
Yamashita, M. (1999). Newmans theory of health applied in family
caregiving in Canada [Electronic version]. Nursing Science
Quarterly, 12(73), 73-79.

IMOGENE KING
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK AND THEORY
OF GOAL ATTAINMENT

IMOGENE KING

King was born Jan. 30, 1923 in West Point,


Iowa.
Bachelor in science of nursing from St. Louis
University in 1948
Master of science in nursing from St. Louis
University in 1957.
Doctorate from Teachers college, Columbia
University.
Theory of goal attainment was first
introduced by Imogene King in early 1960's.

CAREER & ACHIEVEMENTS

King practiced as a staff nurse, nurse educator & nurse


administrator
She formulated her theory while she was an associate
professor of nursing at Loyola University in Chicago,
Illinois
A Theory for Nursing: Systems, Concepts, Process was
published (1981)
King has published many papers in relation to her theory
After 10 years of teaching at South Florida's Nursing
School, King retired with the title "Professor Emeritus
Known as a nurse futurist, theorist, scholar, & educator
whose leadership has been recognized nationally &
internationally

HOW HER THEORY EVOLVED...

King's theory evolved in the mid-1960's


She questioned: how nurses make decisions in
their daily practice & how to define the
nursing act, leading her to focus and develop
the concept "human act" (King 1977)
She wanted to describe the essence of nursing
and the interactional patterns & goals that
govern the nurse-patient relationship
King began to explore different aspects of
nursing that stayed the same, although the
world was changing around it.

BASIC CONCEPT OF THEORY:


GOAL ATTAINMENT

The basic concept of the theory is that the


nurse & patient communicate information,
set goals together, & take actions to achieve
those goals.
It describes a system of relationships that
allows a person to grow & develop in order to
attain certain life goals.

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK &


THEORY OF GOAL ATTAINMENT

Structure:is presented in 3 open systems


Function:is demonstrated in reciprocal
relations of individuals in interaction
Resources: includes both people (health
professionals & their clients) and money,
goods, and services for items needed to carry
out specific activities
Decision Making:
occurs when choices are made in resources
allocation to support attaining system goals

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK &


THEORY OF GOAL ATTAINMENT

King interrelated the concepts of interaction,


perception, communication, transaction,
self, role, stress, growth, and development,
time, and space into a Theory of Goal
Attainment.

3 INTERACTING SYSTEMS

Personal System
each

individual is a personal system

Interpersonal System
involves

individuals interacting with one another

Social Systems
groups

of people within a community or society


that share common goals, interests, and values

PERSONAL SYSTEM

Perception - a process of organizing, interpreting, and


transforming information from sense data and
memory that gives meaning to one's experience,
represents one's image of reality, and influences one's
behavior.
Self - a composite of thoughts and feelings that
constitute a person's awareness of individual
existence, of who and what he or she is.
Growth & development - cellular, molecular, and
behavioral changes in human beings that are a
function of genetic endowment, meaningful and
satisfying experiences, and an environment conducive
to helping individuals move toward maturity.

PERSONAL SYSTEM

Body image - a person's perceptions of his or


her body.
Time - the duration between the occurrence
of one event and the occurrence of another
event.
Space - the physical area called territory
that exists in all directions.
Learning - gaining knowledge.

INTERPERSONAL SYSTEM

Interactions - the acts of two or more persons


in mutual presence; a sequence of verbal and
nonverbal behaviors that are goal directed.
Communication - the vehicle by which human
relations are developed and maintained;
encompasses intrapersonal, interpersonal,
verbal, and nonverbal communication.
Transaction - a process of interaction in which
human beings communicate with the
environment to achieve goals that are valued;
goal-directed human behaviors.

INTERPERSONAL SYSTEM

Role - a set of behaviors expected of a


person occupying a position in a social
system.
Stress - a dynamic state whereby a human
being interacts with the environment to
maintain balance for growth, development,
and performance, involving an exchange of
energy and information between the person
and the environment for regulation and
control of stressors.
Coping - a way of dealing with stress.

SOCIAL SYSTEM

Organization - composed of human beings


with prescribed roles and positions who use
resources to accomplish personal and
organizational goals.
Authority - a transactional process
characterized by active, reciprocal relations
in which members' values, backgrounds, and
perceptions play a role in defining,
validating, and accepting the authority of
individuals within an organization.

SOCIAL SYSTEM

Power - the process whereby one or more


persons influence other persons in a situation.
Status - the position of an individual in a group
or a group in relation to other groups in an
organization.
Decision making - a dynamic and systematic
process by which goal-directed choice of
perceived alternatives is made and acted upon
by individuals or groups to answer a question
and attain a goal.
Control - being in charge.

MODEL OF NURSE-PATIENT
INTERACTION

When transactions are made between nurses,


patients, and families, one can begin to
predict that goals will be attained.

INTERACTING SYSTEMS MODEL

King proposed that the


nurse interacts in the
system simultaneously
at the 3 different
levels: personal,
interpersonal, & social
frameworks.
These levels are
independent & at the
same time co-exist to
influence over-all
nursing practice.

INTERACTING FRAMEWORK

King believes the conceptual framework of


Interpersonal system had the greatest impact
on the development of her theory.
She states, "Although personal systems &
social systems influence quality of care, the
major elements in a theory of goal attainment
are discovered in the interpersonal systems in
which two people, who are usually strangers,
come together ina health care organization to
help & to be helped to maintain a state of
health that permits functioning in roles."

INTERACTING FRAMEWORK

Serves several purposes:


to

identify concepts that are essential knowledge


for nursing as a discipline
to derive theories & test them in research which
may result in scientific knowledge for nursing
to serve as a structure to develop a curriculum
for nursing education
to implement theory-based practice to deliver
quality care to all individuals in hospitals,
community healthcare agencies, and in families

THEORY OF GOAL ATTAINMENT

Elements found in King's Goal Attainment


Theory originated from the concepts in her
Interacting Systems Framework, but it
focuses on theInterpersonal System&
interactions, communications, & transactions
b/t two individuals, the nurse & the patient
come together, communicate, & make
transactions- they set goals & work to
achieve the goals they set.

THEORY OF GOAL ATTAINMENT

They each have a purpose, they perceive,


judge, act & react upon each other; at the
end of their communication, a goal is set &
with this transactions are made.
11 concepts were used to support Theory of
Goal Attainment: perception,
communication, interaction, transaction,
self, role, growth & development, stress,
coping, time, and space.

ASSUMPTIONS

The focus of nursing is the care of the human


being (patient).
The goal of nursing is the health care of both
individuals and groups.
Human beings are open systems interacting
with their environments constantly.
The nurse and patient communicate
information, set goals mutually, and then act
to achieve those goals. This is also the basic
assumption of the nursing process.

ASSUMPTIONS

Patients perceive the world as a complete


person making transactions with individuals
and things in the environment.
Transaction represents a life situation in
which the perceiver and the thing being
perceived are encountered. It also
represents a life situation in which a person
enters the situation as an active participant.
Each is changed in the process of these
experiences.

THEORY APPLIED TO NURSING


PRACTICE

The Transaction Process Model can be used in


daily practice
Mutually-set goals are created & achieved
These outcomes now become evidence-based
practice (Fawcett, 2001)

NURSING EDUCATION

King's Conceptual Framework has been used


to create nursing curriculum for various
programs
Ohio State University undergraduate program
Loyola University Chicago graduate program
King points out that a theory alone should
not be used as the basis for nursing school
curriculum (Fawcett, 2001).

NURSING RESEARCH

King believes that her theory & framework


contain various concepts that can be used as
the basis for research. An example is:
A

study of perceptual congruency b/t clients &


nurses was conducted to examine the
interrelationship of the concepts of perception &
transaction (Froman, 1995)
Mary Killean (1996) used King's concept of
perception to explore a theory regarding patient
satisfaction

King stresses "There is no particular research


method for any theory, as the method used
relates to the problem being studied"

NURSING PROCESS

The goal of the nurse is to help patients


maintain health so they can function in their
individual roles.
The nurse's function is to interpret
information in the nursing process, to plan,
implement, and evaluate nursing care.
In the nurse-patient relationship, the nurse
first uses his or her knowledge base to assess
the patient and make a diagnosis.

NURSING PROCESS

After the diagnosis, the nurse creates a plan


for interventions to solve problems that were
identified in the assessment and diagnosis.
Once a care plan is created, actions are
implemented to achieve the patient's health
goals.
Finally, the nurse evaluates the patient to
determine whether or not the goals were
achieved.

NURSING PARADIGMS

Person
Imogene

King described a person existing in an open


system as a spiritual being and rational thinker who
makes choices, selects alternative courses of action,
and has the ability to record their history through their
own language and symbols, unique, holistic and have
different needs, wants and goals.

Health
According

to Imogene King, health involves dynamic


life experiences of a human being, which implies
continuous adjustment to stressors in the internal and
external environment through optimum use of ones
resources to achieve maximum potential for daily
living.

NURSING PARADIGMS

Environment
It

is the background for human interactions. It


involves:

Internal environment
transforms energy to enable a person to adjust to
continuous external environmental changes.
External environment
involves formal and informal organizations. The
nurse is a part of the patients environment.

NURSING PARADIGMS

Nursing
Nursing

for Imogene King is an act wherein the


nurse interacts and communicates with the
client. The nurse helps the client identify the
existing health condition, exploring and agreeing
on activities to promote health. The goal of the
nurse in Imogene Kings theory is to help the
client maintain health through health promotion
and maintenance, restoration, and caring for the
sick and dying.

KING'S PROPOSITIONS

If perceptual interaction accuracy is present


in nurse-patient interactions, transaction will
occur.
If the nurse and patient make transaction,
the goal or goals will be achieved.
If the goal or goals are achieved, satisfaction
will occur.
If transactions are made in nurse-patient
interactions, growth and development will
be enhanced.

KING'S PROPOSITIONS

If role expectations and role performance as


perceived by the nurse and patient are
congruent, transaction will occur.
If role conflict is experienced by either the
nurse or the patient (or both), stress in the
nurse-patient interaction will occur.
If a nurse with special knowledge
communicates appropriate information to
the patient, mutual goal-setting and goal
achievement will occur.

STRENGTHS

Kings theory of goal attainment does


describe a logical sequence of events.
For the most part, concepts are clearly
defined.
Although the presentation appears to be
complex, Kings theory of goal attainment is
relatively simple.
King formulated assumptions that are
testable hypotheses for research.

WEAKNESSES

Kings theory contains major inconsistencies


She

indicates that nurses are concerned about


the health care of groups but concentrates her
discussion on nursing as occurring in a dyadic
relationship.
King says that the nurse and client are strangers,
yet she speaks of their working together for goal
attainment and of the importance of health
maintenance.

WEAKNESSES

A major limitation is the effort required of


the reader to sift through the presentation of
a conceptual framework and a theory with
repeated definitions to find the basic
concepts.
Another limitation relates to the lack of
development of application of the theory in
providing nursing care to groups, families, or
communities.

ANALYSIS OF THEORY

The social systems portion of the open


systems framework is less clearly connected
to the theory of goal attainment than are the
personal and interpersonal systems.
The citation of the individual being in a
social system was not clearly explained
considering that the social system
encompasses other concepts and subconcepts
in her theory.

ANALYSIS OF THEORY

The model presents interaction which is


dyadic in nature which implies that its
applicability cannot be adapted to
unconscious individuals.
Multitude of views and definition is confusing
for the reader. Because of multiple views on
one concept such as what have been
discussed in her concept of power blurs the
point that the theorist is trying to relate to
the readers.

CONCLUSION

Overall King's theory is very applicable to


Nursing and it's practices
It can be applied in education, the clinical
setting, and research.
I believe it will continue to be useful in the
years to come, as other Mid-Range theories
are built from her Grand Theory

REFERENCES

Alligood, M.R. (2010, April 8). Family healthcare with King's


theory of goal attainment. Nursing Science Quarterly, 23(2),
99-104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0894318410362553
Alligood, M.R., & Tomey, A. M. (2010). Nursing theorists and
their work (7th ed.). Maryland Heights, Missouri: Mosby
Elsevier.
Calladine, M.L. (1996). Nursing process fro health promotion
using King's theory. Journal of Community Health Nursing,
13(1), 51-57. Retrieved from
cuw.summon.serialsolutions.com
Clarke, P.N., Killeen, M.B., Messmer, P.R., & Sieloff C. L.
(2009, April). Imogene M. King's scholars reflect on her
wisdom and influence on nursing science. Nursing Science
Quarterly, 22(2), 128-133. http://
dx.doi.org/10.1177/0894318409332568

REFERENCES

Fawcett, J. (2001, October). The nurse theorists: 21st-century


updates - Imogene M. King. Nursing Science Quarterly, 14(4),
311-315. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089431840101400407
Frey, M.A., Sieloff, C. L.,& Norris, D. M. (2002, April 1). King's
conceptual system and theory of goal attainment: past,
present, and future. Nursing Science Quarterly, 15(2), 107-112.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089431840201500204
King, I.M. (1971). Toward a theory for nursing. New York,
London, Sydney, Toronto: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
King, I. M. (1981). A theory for nursing systems, concepts,
process. New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto: A Wiley
Medical Publication John Wiley & Sons
Messmer, P. R. (2006, June 6). Professional model of care: using
King's theory of goal attainment. Nursing Science Quarterly,
19(3), 227-229. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0894318406289887