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Nutrition

Chapter 3
Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 8
2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Nutritional Requirements:
Components of a Healthy Diet
Essential

nutrients = substances the body


must get from food because it cannot
manufacture them at all or fast enough to
meet its needs
Proteins
Carbohydrates
Fats
Vitamins
Minerals
Water

Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 8
2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Sources of Energy in the


Diet

Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 8
2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

ProteinsThe Basis of Body


Structure

Protein = a compound made of amino acids


that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and
nitrogen
Of twenty common amino acids in foods, nine
are essential
Proteins form key parts of the bodys main
structural componentsmuscles and bones
and of blood, enzymes, cell membranes, and
some hormones

Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 8
2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Complete and Incomplete


Proteins

Complete protein sources = foods that supply all


the essential amino acids in adequate amounts
Meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk, cheese, and soy
Incomplete protein sources = foods that supply
most but not all essential amino acids
Plants, including legumes, grains, and nuts

Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 8
2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Protein Sources
3

ounces lean meat, poultry, or fish


1/2 cup tofu
2025

grams of protein

cup legumes

1520

grams of protein

cup milk or yogurt or 1-1/2 ounces


cheese
812

grams of protein

Cereals,
24

grains, nuts, vegetables

grams of protein per serving


Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 8
2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Recommended Protein
Intake
Adequate

daily intake of protein =


0.8 gram per kilogram (0.36 gram
per pound) of body weight
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution
Range = 1035% of total daily
calories as protein

Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 8
2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

FatsEssential in Small
Amounts
Fats

supply energy, insulate the body,


support and cushion organs, absorb fatsoluble vitamins, add flavor and texture
to foods
Essential fats (linoleic acid and alphalinolenic acid) are key regulators of
body process such as the maintenance
of blood pressure and the progress of a
healthy pregnancy
Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 8
2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Types and Sources of Fats

Saturated fat = a fat with no carbon-carbon double


bonds; usually solid at room temperature

Monounsaturated fat = a fat with one carboncarbon double bond; usually liquid at room
temperature

Found primarily in animal foods and palm and coconut oils

Found in certain vegetables, nuts, and vegetable oils

Polyunsaturated fat = a fat with two or more


carbon-carbon double bonds; usually liquid at room
temperature

Found in certain vegetables, nuts, and vegetable oils and in


fatty fish

Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 8
2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Types and Sources of Fats


Two

key forms of polyunsaturated fats:

Omega-3

fatty acids are produced when the


endmost double bond of a polyunsaturated fat
occurs three carbons from the end of the fatty acid
chain
Found

primarily in fish

Omega-6

fatty acids are produced when the


endmost double bond of a polyunsaturated fat
occurs six carbons from the end of the fatty acid
chain
Found

primarily in certain vegetable oils, especially corn,


soybean, and cottonseed oils

Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 8
2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Comparison of Dietary Fats

Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 8
2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Total Fat Content of Foods

Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 8
2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Trans Fatty Acids


The

process of hydrogenation, in which


hydrogens are added to unsaturated fats,
produces a mixture of saturated fatty acids
and standard and trans forms of
unsaturated fatty acids
Trans fatty acids have an atypical shape
that affects their chemical activity

Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 8
2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Fats and Health

Fats affect blood cholesterol levels


Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) = bad
cholesterol
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) = good
cholesterol
Saturated and trans fats raise levels of
LDL; trans fats also lower levels of HDL
Unsaturated fats lower levels of LDL
Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 8
2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Fats and Health


Fats

also affect triglyceride levels,


inflammation, heart rhythm, blood
pressure, and cancer risk

Best

choices =
monounsaturated fats and
polyunsaturated omega-3 fats
Limit intake of saturated and
trans fats
Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 8
2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Saturated and Trans Fats:


Comparing Butter and Margarine

SOURCE: Food and Drug Administration

Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 8
2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Total, Saturated, and Trans Fat


Content of Selected Foods

SOURCE: Food and Drug Administration

Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 8
2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Fats and Health

Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 8
2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Recommended Fat Intake


Adequate

daily intake of fat:


Men

Women

Linoleic acid

17 grams

12 grams

Alpha-linolenic
acid

1.6 grams

1.1 grams

= about 34 teaspoons of vegetable oil

Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range =


2035% of total daily calories as fat
Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 8
2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

CarbohydratesAn Ideal
Source of Energy

The primary function of dietary carbohydrate is to


supply energy to body cells
Some cells, such as those in the brain, nervous
system, and blood, use only carbohydrates for fuel
During high-intensity exercise, muscles get most of
their energy from carbohydrates
During digestion, carbohydrates are broken into
single sugar molecules such as glucose for
absorption; the liver and muscles take up glucose
and store it in the form of glycogen

Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 8
2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Simple and Complex


Carbohydrates
Simple

carbohydrates contain one or two


sugar units in each molecule

Found naturally in fruits and milk and added to many


other foods
Include sucrose, fructose, maltose, and lactose

Complex

carbohydrates consist of chains of


many sugar molecules

Found in plants, especially grains, legumes, and tubers


Include starches and most types of dietary fiber

Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 8
2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Whole Grains

Before they are processed, all grains


are whole grains consisting of an inner
layer of germ, a middle layer called the
endosperm, and an outer layer of bran
During processing, the germ and bran
are often removed, leaving just the
starchy endosperm
Refined carbohydrates usually retain
all the calories of a whole grain but
lose many of the nutrients

Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 8
2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Refined Carbohydrates
Versus Whole Grains

Whole grains are higher than refined


carbohydrates in fiber, vitamins, minerals, and
other beneficial compounds
Whole grains take longer to digest

Make people feel full sooner


Cause a slower rise in glucose levels

Choose foods that have a whole grain as the first


item on the ingredient list on the food label

Whole wheat, whole rye, whole oats, oatmeal, wholegrain corn, brown rice, popcorn, barley, etc.

Choose

per day

3 or more servings of whole grains

Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 8
2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Glycemic Index

Consumption of carbohydrates causes insulin and


glucose levels in the blood to rise and fall
Glycemic index = a measure of how the ingestion
of a particular food affects blood glucose levels
Foods with a high glycemic index cause quick and
dramatic changes in glucose levels
Diets rich in high glycemic index foods are linked
to increased risk of diabetes and heart disease

Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 8
2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Acceptable Macronutrient
Distribution Ranges: Summary
Protein

= 1035% of total daily

calories
Fat = 2035% of total daily
calories
Carbohydrate = 4565% of total
daily calories

Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 8
2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

FiberA Closer Look


Dietary

fiber = nondigestible
carbohydrates and lignin that are present
naturally in plants
Functional fiber = nondigestible
carbohydrates isolated from natural
sources or synthesized in a lab and added
to a food or supplement
Total fiber = dietary fiber + functional
fiber
Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 8
2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Types of Fiber
Soluble

(viscous) fiber = fiber that dissolves


in water or is broken down by bacteria in the
large intestine
Slows

the bodys absorption of glucose


Binds cholesterol-containing compounds
Insoluble

in water

fiber = fiber that doesnt dissolve

Makes

feces bulkier and softer


Helps prevent constipation, hemorrhoids, and
diverticulitis
Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 8
2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Sources of Fiber
All

plant foods contain fiber, but


processing can remove it
Good sources of fiber:
Fruits

(especially whole, unpeeled fruits)


Vegetables
Legumes
Oats (especially oat bran)
Whole grains and wheat bran
Psyllium (found in some cereals and laxatives)

Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 8
2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Recommended Intake of
Fiber
Women

= 25 grams per day


Men = 38 grams per day
Americans

currently consume about


half this amount

Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 8
2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

WaterA Vital Component


Human body is composed of about 60% water;
you can live only a few days without water
Foods and fluids you consume provide 8090%
of your daily water intake
Adequate intake to maintain hydration:

Women need to drink about 9 cups of fluid per day


Men need to drink about 13 cups of fluid per day

Drink in response to thirst; consume additional


fluids for heavy exercise
Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 8
2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Other Substances in Food:


Antioxidants

Antioxidant = a substance that protects against


the breakdown of body constituents by free
radicals; actions include binding oxygen,
donating electrons to free radicals, and

repairing damage to molecules

Free radical = a chemically unstable, electron-seeking


compound that can damage cell membranes and
mutate genes in its search for electrons

Many fruits and vegetables are rich in


antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E,
selenium, and carotenoids
Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 8
2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Antioxidants Donate Electrons


and Stabilize Free Radicals

Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 8
2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Other Substances in Food:


Phytochemicals

Phytochemical = a naturally occurring substance


found in plant foods that may help prevent and
treat chronic diseases
Examples:
Certain proteins in soy foods
Sulforaphane in cruciferous vegetables (cabbage,
broccoli, brussels sprouts, kale, cauliflower)
Allyl sulfides in garlic and onions

Fruits and vegetables are rich in phytochemicals

Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 8
2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Leading Sources of Calories


in the American Diet
1. Regular soft drinks (7.1% of total calories)
2. Cake, sweet rolls, doughnuts, pastries (3.6%)
3. Hamburgers, cheeseburgers, meat loaf (3.1%)
4. Pizza (3.1%)
5. Potato chips, corn chips, popcorn (2.9%)
6. Rice (2.7%)
7. Rolls, buns, English muffins, bagels (2.7%)
8. Cheese or cheese spread (2.6%)
9. Beer (2.6%)
10. French fries, fried potatoes (2.2%)
Source: Block, G. 2004. Foods contributing to energy intake in the U.S.: Data from NHANES III and NHANES 1999
2000. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 17: 439447.

Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 8
2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Dietary Guidelines for


Americans
Choose

and prepare foods with little salt

2300

mg daily limit
1500 mg daily limit for older adults, African
Americans, and people with hypertension
Consume

potassium-rich foods

Leafy

green vegetables, sweet and white potatoes,


winter squash, soybeans, tomato sauce, bananas,
peaches, apricots, cantaloupes, and orange juice

Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 8
2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Dietary Guidelines for


Americans
If

you drink alcoholic beverages, do so


in moderation, in situations that do not
put yourself or others at risk
No

more than 2 drinks per day for men


No more than 1 drink per day for women
Some groups should not drink at all

Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 8
2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Food Labels
Read labels to
learn more
about
your food
choices.

Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 8
2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Food Additives
Most

widely used are sugar, salt, corn


syrup, citric acid, baking soda, vegetable
colors, mustard, pepper
Concerns about some additives:
Monosodium

glutamate (MSG) causes some


people to experience episodes of sweating and
increased blood pressure
Sulfites cause severe reactions in some people
Check food labels

Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 8
2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Foodborne Illness
Most foodborne illness is caused by pathogens
(disease-causing microorganisms)
You cant tell by taste, smell, or sight whether
a food is contaminated
To prevent foodborne illness, handle, cook, and
store foods in ways that prevent
microorganisms from spreading and multiplying
New threat: bovine spongiform encephalopathy
(BSE or mad cow disease)

Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 8
2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Organic Foods
Organic = a designation applied to foods grown and
produced according to strict guidelines limiting the use of
pesticides, nonorganic ingredients, hormones, antibiotics,
genetic engineering, irradiation, and other practices

Organic foods tend to


have lower levels of
pesticide residues than
conventionally grown crops

Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 8
2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Guidelines for Fish


Consumption

To avoid harmful effects of mercury, guidelines


have been set for women who are or who may become
pregnant, as well as nursing mothers:

Do not eat shark, swordfish, king mackerel, tilefish


Eat up to 12 ounces per week of a variety of fish and shellfish;
limit consumption of albacore tuna to 6 ounces per week
Check advisories about locally caught fish; if no information is
available, limit to 6 ounces per week

Same guidelines for children, but smaller servings


To avoid exposure to PCBs in farmed fish, some
experts recommend a limit of 8 ounces of farmed
salmon per month

Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 8
2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

A Personal Plan: Applying


Nutritional Principles
Assess

your current diet


Set goals for change
Try additions and substitutions to
bring your current diet closer to your
goals
Plan ahead for challenging situations

Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 8
2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Nutrition
Chapter 8

Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness, Chapter 8
2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.