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sample, e.g. degree of religious

fundamentalism, for groups or

subsets of cases defined by another

categorical variable, e.g. gender.

A contingency table, which SPSS calls

a cross-tabulated table is shown

below:

09/28/15

Slide 1

combination of the characteristics

associated with the two variables:

29 males were

also

fundamentalist

s.

42 females

were

fundamentalis

ts.

While a larger number of females were

fundamentalist, we cannot tell if females were

more likely to be fundamentalist because the

total number of females (146) was different

from the total number of males (107).

To answer the more likely question, we need

to compare percentages.

09/28/15

Slide 2

be calculated for a contingency

table:

percentage of the total number of

cases

percentage of the total in each row

percentage of the total in each

column

Each of the three percentages

provide different information and

09/28/15

Slide 3

of cases is computed by dividing the

number in each cell (e.g. 29, 42, etc.)

by the total number of cases (253).

11.5% of the

cases were both

male and

fundamentalist.

the table contains total

percentages. First, the

rows that the percentages

are on are labeled % of

Total.

09/28/15

16.6% of the

cases were both

female and

fundamentalist.

figure appears ONLY

in the grand total

cell beneath the

table total of 253.

Slide 4

row is computed by dividing the

number in each cell (e.g. 29, 42) by

the total for the row (71).

40.8% of the

fundamentali

sts were

male.

percentage tells us that it

is computed within the

category for

fundamentalist.

59.2% of the

fundamentali

sts were

female.

row sums to 100% in the

total column for rows (the

row margin).

09/28/15

Slide 5

column is computed by dividing the

number in each cell (e.g. 29, 36, and

42) by the total for the column (107).

27.1% of the

males were

fundamentalists.

33.6% of the

males were

moderates.

The label for the

percentage tells us that it

is computed within the

category for sex.

09/28/15

The percentage in

each column sums

to 100% in the total

row for columns

(the column

margin).

Slide 6

the percent that is in both

categories (total percentage)

the percent of each row that is

found in each of the column

categories (row percentages)

the percent of each column that is

found in each of the row categories

(column percentages)

The row and column percentages are

referred to as conditional or

contingent percentages.

09/28/15

Slide 7

the percent that is in both

categories (total percentage)

the percent of each row that is

found in each of the column

categories (row percentages)

the percent of each column that is

found in each of the row categories

(column percentages)

The row and column percentages are

referred to as conditional or

contingent percentages.

09/28/15

Slide 8

contingent percentages because these

tell us about the relationship between

the variables.

The relationship between variables is

defined by a distinct role for each:

the variable which affected or impacted

by the other is the dependent variable

the variable which affects or impacts the

other is the independent variable

independent variable in one analysis

may be a dependent variable in

09/28/15

Slide 9

relationship to another categorical

variable if the probability of being in

one category of the dependent

variable differs depending on the

category of the independent

variable.

For example, if there is a relationship

between social class and college

attendance, the percentage of upper

class persons who attend college will

be different from the percentage of

09/28/15

Slide 10

statistically with either the row or

column percentages in a contingency

table, my practice is to always put

the independent variable in the

columns and the dependent variable

in the rows, and compute column

percentages.

This order matches the order for

many graphics where the dependent

variable is on the vertical axis and

the independent variable is on the

09/28/15

Slide 11

we can make statements like the

following:

be liberal (39.3%), while

females were most likely

to be moderate (45.5%).

09/28/15

Slide 12

we can make statements like the

following:

the statement that

liberals are more likely to

be male or female.

09/28/15

Males were

more likely to

be liberal

(39.3%)

compared to

females

(26.7%).

Slide 13

based on a comparison of odds. First,

we compute the odds separately for

each category of the independent

variable:

a male would

be a liberal

rather than a

fundamentalist

are 42 29 =

1.45.

09/28/15

a female

would be

liberal rather

than

fundamentalis

t are 39 42

= .93.

Slide 14

the ratio between the two: 1.45 for

males .93 for females = an odds

ratio of 1.56.

We can now state the relationship

between the two variables as: males

are 1.56 times more likely to be liberal

rather than fundamentalist, than are

females.

This could also be stated as: being

male increases the odds of being

liberal rather than fundamentalist by a

09/28/15

Slide 15

groups would be equally likely to be

liberals rather than fundamentalists.

We could have divided the odds for

females by the odds for males (.93

1.45 = .64) and stated that being

female decreased the odds of being

liberal versus fundamentalist by a

factor of .64, or 36%. (.64 1.00 = .

36) and multiplying .36 by 100 to

convert it to a percent. Explaining

decreases in odds is more awkward

09/28/15

Slide 16

indicates:

The data set to use (GSS200R)

The statistic to use (contingency table)

The variable to use in the rows of the

table (attitude toward life )

The variable to use in the columns of the

table (sex)

09/28/15

slide 17

evaluate concerns the number of

valid and missing cases. To answer

this question, we produce the

contingency table in SPSS.

09/28/15

slide 18

To compute a

contingency table in

SPSS, select the

Descriptive Statistics

> Crosstabs

command from the

Analyze menu.

09/28/15

slide 19

row variable life to

the Row(s) list box.

column variable

sex to the

Column(s) list box.

Third, click on Cells

button to specify what

should be printed in

each cell of the table.

09/28/15

slide 20

Second, click

on the Continue

button to close

the dialog box.

check boxes for

Column and Total

percentages.

09/28/15

slide 21

After returning to

the Crosstabs

dialog box, click

on the OK button

to produce the

output.

09/28/15

slide 22

provides us with the

answer to the

question on sample

size.

09/28/15

Summary' in the SPSS output

showed the total number of

valid cases to be 186 and the

number of missing cases to be

84.

slide 23

the SPSS output showed the total

number of valid cases to be 186

and the number of missing cases to

be 84.

Click on the check box to mark the

statement as correct.

09/28/15

slide 24

combination of characteristics was

most common. The key word and

tell us that the problem is looking

for total percentages, i.e. the

percentage that has both

characteristics.

09/28/15

slide 25

(30.1%) in the contingency

table was in the cell for the

column labeled FEMALE and

the row labeled ROUTINE.

09/28/15

slide 26

respondents were female and said

that they generally find life pretty

routine than any other combination of

categories" is correct.

The check box for the first statement

is marked.

Since this precludes the second

statement from being marked, its

checkbox is left unmarked.

09/28/15

slide 27

to compare the groups, and identify

which group was more likely (had a

larger proportion) with the specified

characteristic.

09/28/15

slide 28

respondents who were female was

54.4%, which was larger than the

column percent of 44.6 for survey

respondents who were male.

09/28/15

slide 29

survey respondents who were male,

those who were female were more

likely to have said that they generally

find life pretty routine" is correct.

The check box for the first statement

is marked.

Since this precludes the second

statement from being marked, its

checkbox is left unmarked.

09/28/15

slide 30

options for the most likely response for

each group. The first option identifies

alternatives for the most likely

response. The second option states

that both groups have the same most

likely responses.

was most likely for each group

requires that we identify the

mode for each group.

09/28/15

slide 31

the largest percentage of

cases (49.4%), making it the

modal category for survey

respondents who were male.

09/28/15

slide 32

the largest percentage of

cases (54.4%), making it the

modal category for females.

09/28/15

slide 33

male were most likely to have said that they

generally find life exciting, while survey

respondents who were female were most likely to

have said that they generally find life pretty

routine" is correct

Since this precludes the second statement from

being marked, its checkbox is left unmarked.

09/28/15

slide 34

compute the odds of describing life as

routine rather than exciting for each

group, and then compute the odds ratio

to determine which group was more likely

to have said life was routine rather than

exciting.

09/28/15

slide 35

who were female was computed

by dividing the Count for

ROUTINE by the Count' for

EXCITING (5644=1.27).

09/28/15

slide 36

who were male were computed

by dividing the Count' for

ROUTINE by the Count' for

EXCITING (3741=0.90).

09/28/15

slide 37

calculations that I cannot

do easily in SPSS.

to males is 1.4, which

corresponds to a greater

likelihood for females.

09/28/15

First, I

calculate the

odds for each

group (sex).

Second, I

calculate the

odds ratio, once

for the ratio of

group 1 (females)

to group 2

(males), and a

second time for

the ratio of group

2 (males) to

group 1

(females).

slide 38

The

second

stateme

nt in the

pair is

marked.

09/28/15

who were male, those who were female were about 1.4

times more likely to have said that they generally find

life pretty routine" is correct. The odds for survey

respondents who were female was computed by

dividing the 'Count' for the ROUTINE row by the 'Count'

for the EXCITING row in the FEMALE column

(5644=1.27). The odds for survey respondents who

were male was computed by dividing the 'Count' for

the ROUTINE row by the 'Count' for the EXCITING row

in the MALE column (3741=0.90). The odds ratio for

survey respondents who were female to survey

respondents who were male is 1.27 to 0.90, or 1.41 to

1.

slide 39

translate some of the decimal

fractions for odds and odds ratios

from numbers to text. The

following table shows the

translations used.

If the odds

are:

Homework

problems will

describe the

likelihood as:

0.95 through

1.05

0.95,0.96,0.97,0.98,0.99,1.00,1.01,1.02,1.03,1.04,

1.05

1.95 through

2.05

1.95,1.96,1.97,1.98,1.99,2.00,2.01,2.02,2.03,2.04,

2.05

2.95 through

3.05

likely

2.95,2.96,2.97,2.98,2.99,3.00,3.01,3.02,3.03,3.04,

3.05

3.95 through

4.05

likely

3.95,3.96,3.97,3.98,3.99,4.00,4.01,4.02,4.03,4.04,

4.05

4.95 through

5.05

likely

4.95,4.96,4.97,4.98,4.99,5.00,5.01,5.02,5.03,5.04,

5.05

5.95 through

6.05

likely

5.95,5.96,5.97,5.98,5.99,6.00,6.01,6.02,6.03,6.04,

6.05

6.95 through

7.05

likely

6.95,6.96,6.97,6.98,6.99,7.00,7.01,7.02,7.03,7.04,

7.05

7.95 through

09/28/15

8.05

likely

7.95,7.96,7.97,7.98,7.99,8.00,8.01,8.02,8.03,8.04,

Slide 40

8.05

Examples:

translate some of the decimal

fractions for odds and odds ratios

from numbers to text. The

following table shows the

translations used.

09/28/15

If the

decimal

fraction for

the odds is:

Homework problems

will describe the

likelihood as:

Examples:

0.20 through

0.30

more likely

3.2

1

times more likely

Greater than

0.30 and less

than 0.37

likely

3.3

6

times more likely

0.45 through

0.55

likely

3.4

9

times more likely

Greater than

0.63 and less

than 0.70

more likely

3.6

9

times more likely

0.70 through

0.80

more likely

3.7

0

quarters times more

likely

otherwise

reported as a number

rounded to one decimal

place

3.4

2

Slide 41

assignment, it will give you an

option to review the results.

For this problem, we received the

full 10 points because we marked

all of the correct answers and did

not mark any of the incorrect

answers. Note: this version of

BlackBoard does not give partial

credit.

09/28/15

slide 42

the graded answer

explains what the

correct answer

would have been.

09/28/15

slide 43

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