CHAPTER X

Training and Development Effectiveness

OBJECTIVES OF THE CHAPTER
 Need

for Effective Training  Factors for Effective Training  Evaluation of ‘Impact’ of a Training Program  Quality of Work Life  Measurement of Trainee Behavior before and after Training Program  Cost and Value Effectiveness  Ten Steps to Maximize the Effectiveness of Training

NEED FOR EFFECTIVE TRAINING
 For

training to be considered effective, trainees must meet four criteria: (a) They must be ready to learn, (b) They must be motivated, (c) They must learn the content of the training program and (d) They must transfer their training when back on the job.

FACTORS FOR EFFECTIVE TRAINING
 Some

contributing factors which make training effective are  Top Management’s Commitment  Need-based Training  Motivating the Trainers  Number vis-a-vis Quality  Willingness and Learning Ability  Faculty  Innovations

EVALUATION OF ‘IMPACT’ OF A TRAINING PROGRAM
 Training

programs are planned, executed and sustained with certain objectives, utilizing time, resources and efforts or inputs of various social-systems.  Availability, delivery and inter-play of these inputs are governed by various socialscreening processes and multitudes of activities.  produce certain degree of effects or outputs by overcoming several types of constraints, problems and resistance.

EVALUATION OF ‘IMPACT’ OF A TRAINING PROGRAM CONTD…
 Thus,

the resultant outputs give intended or unintended, tangible or intangible, specified or unspecified, short or long, positive or negative and expected or unexpected ‘impacts’.  These impacts are an expression of the changes produced in a situation as a result of training activities undertaken with certain training-objectives.

EVALUATION OF ‘IMPACT’ OF A TRAINING PROGRAM CONTD…
 For

any training-project, an assumption is made that 'the programme of training is based on the felt-needs of the people’ with an agreement from all parties concerned, including the user system.  These systems are the targetbeneficiaries, who become partners in the progress of development and are rarely listed in the project document.

EVALUATION OF ‘IMPACT’ OF A TRAINING PROGRAM CONTD…
 Even

in the well prepared technical cooperation project (TCP) executed by national and international agencies, the utilization and identification of target-groups are rarely documented resulting in the emergence of the following issues:  First and the basic issue is a sharp and clear definition of target-groups and their abilities, capabilities and potentialities in absorbing the training-inputs for the improvement for their lots.

EVALUATION OF ‘IMPACT’ OF A TRAINING PROGRAM CONTD…

Second issue is examining in depth a common-pool of assumptions, goals and objectives drawn from different target groups in organizing training programs and making all out efforts in orienting and re-orienting them to assure that the benefits accrued will have multiplier effects on them in a targeted period of time.

EVALUATION OF ‘IMPACT’ OF A TRAINING PROGRAM CONTD…

Third issue is the identification of criteria and standards for measuring the stated operational objectives and their empirical definitions in terms of technical and behavioral indicators for each specified target groups.

EVALUATION OF ‘IMPACT’ OF A TRAINING PROGRAM CONTD…

Last issue is related to obtaining a three-dimensional picture of target beneficiary groups viz. – a. Actual beneficiary groups; who are directly benefited from training. b. Potential beneficiaries; who have the capacity to use the trainingoutputs, but they are not getting immediate benefits from the trained manpower.

EVALUATION OF ‘IMPACT’ OF A TRAINING PROGRAM CONTD…
c. Desired beneficiary target groups, whom the training programme planners normally want to reach but all of them may not have the capacity and potentiality to use the training outputs.

MEASUREMENT OF IMPACT
 Possible

Impact  Directionality  Data Needs  Intensity of Impacts  Impact Paths

PURPOSE OF MEASUREMENT OF IMPACT
 In

tracing the purpose of training, the questions arising are – i. Firstly, whether the training (programme) under evaluation, was organized as an ‘investment’ (production) or for future ‘consumption’ purposes? a. If the purpose was exclusively for consumption, then an evaluator may study the ‘performance’ of extrainees and need not go for impact studies.

PURPOSE OF MEASUREMENT OF IMPACT
b. In case of training, organized as an incremental investment, then the profit accrued have to be compared with losses (wastage) by developing a balance-sheet of training-efforts-cumresults obtained both in quantitative and qualitative terms. c. Even in the case of consumption of training, in relation to developmental efforts, the amount consumed (cost) must be compared to socio-economic benefits accrued to the user-system(s).

PURPOSE OF MEASUREMENT OF IMPACT
d. Ultimately, the entire training system (linking international, national and local efforts as one) will have to be treated as an industry that generally consumes (a lot initially) and simultaneously produces finished marketable products and earns profits quantitatively and qualitatively).

PURPOSE OF MEASUREMENT OF IMPACT
 Secondly,

whether the training under evaluation, was conceived as ‘performance-centered’ or ‘clientcentered’ or both?  If the purpose of training is exclusively performance-centered, then the evaluation has to be restricted to the measurement of incremental-orderly job (role) performance over a period of time, through training and retraining efforts.

PURPOSE OF MEASUREMENT OF IMPACT
In case of training organized as clientcent red, then an evaluator first, identifies the group of clients (targetbeneficiary groups) and measures direct, indirect and diffused impacts on them.  But, in the cases of performance-cumclient-centered training, the results (impact) have to be measured at individual beneficiary and group of community levels.

PURPOSE OF MEASUREMENT OF IMPACT

The client-centered training requires periodicity of evaluation exercises due to production of short, medium as well as long-term impacts in different directions. As such it becomes a costly exercise, specially when neither the training-objectives are clear nor there are identified target-groups on whom impact is almost assured.

PURPOSE OF MEASUREMENT OF IMPACT
e. The performance-centered training requires study of several human performance complexities in a complex social system, by analyzing man’s ability and stability in performing the tasks for which he has been trained. f. It is a social reality that individual impact and group impact form an integrated whole i.e., the ex-trainees as well as their clients are bound together through their interactional efforts and then they produce the impact.

QUALITY OF WORK LIFE
 The

American Society of Training and Development (ASTD) established a task force on the QWL in 1979. This task force defined QWL as ‘a process of work organizations which enables its members at all levels to actively participate in shaping the organizations, environment, methods and outcomes.  This value based process is aimed towards meeting the twin goals of enhanced effectiveness of organization and improved quality of life at work for employees’.

QUALITY OF WORK LIFE CONTD…
 Walton

(1975) proposes eight conceptual categories that together make up the Quality of Working Life. These are briefly presented below: 1. Adequate and fair compensation 2. Safe and healthy working conditions 3. Immediate opportunity to use and develop human capacities 4. Opportunity for continued growth and security

QUALITY OF WORK LIFE
5. Social integration in the work organization 6. Constitutionalization in the work organization 7. Work and the total life space 8. The social relevance of work life

QUALITY OF WORK LIFE
 The

basic concept underlying the QWL is what has come to be known as ‘humanization of work’.  It involved basically the development of an environment of work that stimulates the creative abilities of the workers, generates cooperation, and interest in self-growth.

QUALITY OF WORK LIFE
 Herrick

and Maccoby have identified four basic principles which summarize the humanization of work.  These principles are briefly discussed below:  The principle of security  The principle of equity  The principle of individuation  The principle of democracy

BETTER QUALITY PRODUCTION
 The

following improvements are generally made as a result of impact of training and development programs which directly helped to have better quality production. i. Improved behavior with colleagues and boss. ii. Feeling of ‘this is our work’ rather than this is ‘not my work’. iii.Reducing the tendency of hiding one’s mistakes and highlighting others’ mistakes. iv.Improved climate of cooperation between departments.

BETTER QUALITY PRODUCTION
v.

vi.

vii. viii.

Joint problem-solving with all involved, resulting in faster problemsolving. Started planning day’s work. This has resulted in completion of important jobs in time and reduction of tensions. Used to think only of ‘self’, now of others too. Started doing work without deliberately waiting for instructions from supervisors.

BETTER QUALITY PRODUCTION
ix. x. xi. xii.

xiii.

xiv.

Avoid deliberate confrontations. Used to work mechanically – now take interest in work. Developed courage to ask others and learn from them. Used to think anti-management, now willing to see Management’s point of view also. Understood the importance of discipline and started wearing uniform. Increased interest in the suggestion scheme.

BETTER QUALITY PRODUCTION
 Problems

faced After attending the training programs, the employees in their efforts to improve productivity, faced resistance from their co-workers who did not attend the program. They also faced resistance from their supervisors who did not listen to their suggestions.

BETTER QUALITY PRODUCTION
 RESULTS

As a result of these programs, it was felt that the shop-floor industrial relations situation had improved discipline, capacity utilization, and productivity had also gone up. There was an increased positive understanding and good relations with the management.

ROLE EFFICACY
 The

concept of role widens the meaning of work, as also of the relationship of the worker with other significant persons in the system.  The concept of job is more prescriptive in nature; the concept of role includes more discretionary part of work.  supervisor; the role emphasizes his relationship with all those who have expectations from him.

ROLE EFFICACY CONTD…
 Some

The job assumes the relationship of the worker with his confusion is created by the various work related terms.  The following distinction may help in clarifying the meanings.  Work is a wider concept, linking a person with his tools and with others performing similar activity.  Office or position is a specific point in organizational structure, defining the power of the person occupying it.

ROLE EFFICACY CONTD…
 Role

is the set of obligations generated by others and the individual occupying an office.  Job is the specific requirement to produce a product or achieve an objective.  Function is a group of expected behaviors of a role. Tasks are the specific activity of a function often bound by time.

ROLE EFFICACY CONTD…
 Personal

efficacy would mean potential effectiveness of a person in personal and inter-personal situations, role efficacy would mean the potential effectiveness of an individual occupying a particular role in an organization.  Role efficacy can be seen as a psychological factor underlying role effectiveness.  In short, role efficacy is the potential effectiveness of a role.

MEASUREMENT OF TRAINEE BEHAVIOR - BEFORE AND AFTER
TRAINING PROGRAM
 Pre-Post-Evaluation

sheets are developed specially on the basis of the subject-matter to be taught in the training, changes expected in the trainees as a result of training, competencies that are to be created as a result of training and other organizational behavior changes anticipated, which can be measured, tabulated and scored as on the chart given below:

MEASUREMENT OF TRAINEE BEHAVIOR BEFORE AND AFTER
TRAINING PROGRAM
Before the Training Items/ After the Training Statem ents E (1) A (a) (b) (c) B (a) (b) (c) A B (5) (4) C (3) D (2) E (1)

A (5)

B (4)

C (3)

D (2)

COST AND VALUE EFFECTIVENESS
 Cost

Effectiveness  The cost of training programs consists of inputs and outputs.  Cost inputs consider one side of the financial equation, the cost of the programs and whether this has been the most economical and effective approach.

COST AND VALUE EFFECTIVENESS CONTD…
 On

the face of it, this would seem to be simple and straight forward accounting, but within the majority of quantitative aspects there is also a minority of qualitative aspects about which broad assessment only is possible.

COST AND VALUE EFFECTIVENESS CONTD…
 The

major headings included in cost inputs are –  Fixed capital costs.  Maintenance or working capital costs.  Administrative costs.  Trainer costs.  Direct training costs.  External agent costs.  Trainee costs.

COST ANALYSIS
 The

figures obtained under the headings described above can be used to produce a summary statement from which a number of conclusions about the cost of training can be made. These will include –  Direct cost of a training program  Direct cost of the total training function  Cost of the training function per individual within the organization  Cost of the training program per learner

VALUE EFFECTIVENESS
 Cost

analysis leading to an assessment of cost effectiveness is not simple – it is not always easy to obtain the financial information or produce real attribution or apportionment.  But obtaining the value of the training is much more difficult, so much so that some people suggest that it is impossible to attain.

VALUE EFFECTIVENESS
 It

is frequently the principal argument used against evaluation – based on the so-called ‘soft/hard’ benefits – in that evaluators cannot provide incontrovertible evidence of an increase in hard benefits to the business.  It is difficult to counter this argument, although there can be significant concrete evidence for some learning events, more training results are subjective.

IMPROVEMENTS IN THE ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE AND CULTURE
 Without

doubt this is the most difficult thing to assess: fewer resignations and discharges, less sick leaves, increased production and a reduction in customer complaints – these and other indicators may give the opportunity to assess a change, but all are highly subjective, particularly when confirmation of a direct link with a training/learning program is attempted.

GUIDELINES FOR VALUEEFFECTIVE ANALYSIS
The following summarizes the guidelines that should help in this difficult area –  Do not be put off by the apparent, or real, difficulties and subjective nature of the areas to be assessed – try something.  In subjective assessment try for comparisons with similar events under similar conditions.  Seek the views – albeit subjective ones – of others, i.e. ask for the critical views of customers, internal and external.

GUIDELINES FOR VALUEEFFECTIVE ANALYSIS CONTD…
 Compare

results against models or even concepts when the areas are completely subjective in nature.  Only gather information or data that you will be able to use, however interesting or easy to obtain other ‘data’ might be.  Ask the line manager of the learners before the events for their estimate of how much it will be worth to them and their operation to have an effective person.

GUIDELINES FOR VALUEEFFECTIVE ANALYSIS CONTD…
 After

the training evaluate the success and ask the line manager whether their initial estimates have been achieved.  Seek, but do not necessarily take as positive proof, organizational effects linked to the training areas – increased productivity, decreased absences, discipline incidents, grievances etc.  Link these to other evaluation processes to ensure that contamination has not occurred.

TEN STEPS TO MAXIMIZE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TRAINING
    

Training-needs Identification Pre-training Activities: Planning and Organizing the Program Designing the Module Feedback on the Faculty

TEN STEPS TO MAXIMIZE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TRAINING CONTD…
 Feedback

from the External Faculty  Training Plan and Budgets  Development of In-house Faculty  Nomination to External Seminars and Training Programs  Quality Training Focus

SUMMARY OF THE CHAPTER
 Need

for Effective Training  Factors for Effective Training  Evaluation of ‘Impact’ of a Training Program  Quality of Work Life  Measurement of Trainee Behavior before and after Training Program  Cost and Value Effectiveness  Ten Steps to Maximize the Effectiveness of Training

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