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## METALURGY AND INSPECTION

DEPARTEMENT, PUSDIKLAT
MIGAS CEPU , CENTRAL-JAVA
Kp Baru, Cepu and Villa Jatirasa
Bekasi, West-Java.
(0296)-421888 ext 217,08170950970

## VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION

FORCE
PRESSURE
WORK, POWER AND ENERGY
MECHANICAL CONSTRUCTION

Velocity : Definition
Time (t) = 4 seconds
Car 1

## Velocity Car 2 = Car 1

Time (t) = 4 seconds

## Velocity Car 2 > Car 1

Time (t) = 2 seconds

Car 2

## Velocity is the rate of change of position: that is ,

it is the change in position that occurs during a
given time.
The unit of velocity in the SI system is the metre
per seconds (m/s).
V = Velocity

[m/s]

[m]

t = Time

[s]

Example

Pipe

Crude
5 [m]

## The crude oil moves in pipe form point A to point B, in 5 [seconds],

determine velocity of crude oil ?
S = 5 [m]
t = 5 [seconds]
V = S/t = 5 m / 5 s = 1 [m/s]

## Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity: that is, it is

the change in velocity that occurs during a given time.

## The unit of acceleration in the SI system is the metre per

seconds squared (m/s2).

a
Vt
Vo
T

## = Acceleration of a body [m/s2]

= Final Velocity [m/s]
= Original Velocity [m/s]
= Time [s].

Example :

## If a body is moving toward the right at the velocity of 10 [m/s], and 4

seconds later it is found to be moving to the right at a velocity of 30
[m/s],Find the Acceleration of a bodys !
Vt = 30 [m/s] , Vo = 10 [m/s , t = 4 [seconds]
a = (Vt Vo) /t
a = ( 30 10) / 4
a = 20 / 4 = 5 [m/s2]

## Force may be defined as any action on a body which

tends to change its size or shape, it is state of rest, or it
is state of motion. In the SI system, the unit of force is
called the Newton (N).
F

For all cases :

## Force (F) = mass (m) x acceleration (a).

m = The quantity of matter a body contains [kg]
a = Acceleration of a body [ m/s2]

Example :

## 1. A mass of 1000 kg is to be accelerated at 15

[m/s2]. What force is required ?

F1 = 10 [N]
m = 2 [kg]
600

## Pressure is defined as force per unit area and acts in

a direction normal to or at right angle to a surface.
Pressure (P)

= Force (F)
Area (A)
F

P = (2.t.F.E.S) /D

## t = pipe wall thickness, in

P = Pressure in pipe (maximum), psig
D = Outside Diameter , in
E = Longitudinal Joint Factot
S = Allowable Stress in material, psi
F = Design Factor

piping System

## Design Factor (F)

F = 0,8 : Based on actual operation condition.
F = 0,72 : Sparsely populated areas, farm, land, desert
F = 0,6 : Fringe areas around cities, town and villages
F = 0,5 : Resedential and industrial areas.
F = 0,4 : Dense areas with multi story buliding,traffic
heavy.

## Carbon Steel pipe, butt Welded pipe

A53, with based actual operation
transfer crude oil from reservoir
tank to Refinery, operation
temperatur 600 deg F and use pipe
NPS 8 Sch 40.
Determine maximum allowable
pressure in pipe?

## What spesification of pipe will be

use to transfer crude oil from tank
to another tank if pipe NPS 6 Sch 40
Carbon steel seamless pipe,
operation temp 300 deg F (Farm
area), Maximum operation
pressurre is 1000 psig ?

## If a force is applied to a body and causes it to move

through a distance, then work is done. Work is the
product of the force applied (Newton) and the
distance moved (metres)
Work done

## The quantity of work has to do with a force causing a

displacement. Power is the rate of doing work in
giventime.

## Power = Work Done

Time

EXERCISE :
Where the bouth of car will be meet ?
1.
V = 10 [m/s]
Car 1

Car 2
V = 5 [m/s]

B
20,000 [m]

EXERCISE :

STORAGE TANK

2.

## How long times need to

Fill the tank full ?
10 [m]
Flow Capacity
of Crude Oil
1 [m3/s]

EXERCISE :

PUSDIKLAT MIGAS

EXERCISE :
v [m/s]
1.

20

10

10

t [s]

EXERCISE :
V2 = 2 [m/s]

V1 = 1 [m/s]

2.

A
7
[cm]

R 3.5 [cm]

B
12
[m]
V3 = 2 [m/s]

V4 = 4 [m/s]

## How time needs to crude oil move from point A to B ?

D

D = 2 [cm]
t

2m
PUMP

Pressure of Clynder ?
Power of pump needs?

= 10 [s]

pipe A

20 in

pipe B

20 in

80 in

pipe C

30 in

Determine :
a.Time needs crude oil move from point X to Y .
b.Specification pipe A, B and C, (Carbon Steel seamles pipe)

40 in

Data :
a.Based on actual operation
b.Crude oil temperatur 500 deg F.
c.Qapacity 30 m3/s
d.Pipe A NPS 6 Sch 40, Pipe B NPS 8 Sch 40, Pipe C NPS 4 Sch 40
e.Pressure in pipe A : 1088 psig
f.Pressure in pipe B : 765 psig
g.Pressure in pipe C : 1820 psig
h.Carbon steel pipe seamless.