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Group Review

ECOLOGY
EXAM

Rules for Group Review


You must work with your group.
Only one person may answer for your group.
You may not talk during other groups turns or

your group will lose points.


If you repeat an incorrect answer, your group
will lose points.
You may not use anything during Group
Review except your brains.
If voice levels cannot be controlled, we will
stop playing and instead have a pop quiz.

Ecology

The study of how

organisms interact
with one another
and with the
environment.
Population

A group of

individuals of the
same species that
live in the same
place.

Biotic Factor

A living part

of the
environment.

Abiotic Factor

A nonliving

part of an
environment.

Species

Includes

organisms that
are closely
related and can
mate to produce
fertile offspring.
Community

Made up of all

the species that


live and interact
in an area.

Ecosystem

A community of

organisms and their


nonliving environment.

Habitat

The place where an

organism usually lives.

Niche

The role the population

plays in the ecosystem.

Producer (Autotroph)

Uses energy to make own

food.

Decomposer

An organism that gets

energy and nutrients by


breaking down the
remains of other
organisms.

Consumer

An organism that eats

other organisms.

Herbivore

A consumer that eats

only plants.

Carnivore

A consumer that eats

other animals.

Omnivore

A consumer that eats

both plants and animals.

Food Chain

The path of energy

transfer from producers


to consumers in one
direction.

Food Web

The feeding relationships

among organisms in an
ecosystem and are made
up of many food chains.

Ecology
LESSON 3 AND 4
VOCABULARY

Limiting Factor
An environment

factor that
prevents an
organism or
population from
reaching its full
potential of size
or activity.

Estuary

An area

where fresh
water mixes
with salt
water from
the ocean.

Prey

An

organism
that is killed
and eaten by
another
organism.

Native Species
A species that

was not
introduced and
that naturally
occurs in a given
ecosystem both
in the past and
now.

Wetland
An area of

land that is
periodically
underwater or
whose soil
contains a
great deal of
moisture.

Predator

An

organism
that kills
and eats all
or part of
another
organism.

Coral Reef

A limestone
ridge found in
tropical climates
and composed of
coral fragments
that are
deposited
around organic
remains.

Introduced Species
A species

introduced
either by
accident or on
purpose by
human actions
into places
beyond the
species natural
range.

Symbiosis
A relationship

in which two
different
organisms live
in close
association
with each
other.

Competition
Ecological

relationship
in which two
or more
organisms
depend on the
same limited
resource.

Mutualism

relationship
between two
species in
which both
species
benefit.

Parasitism
A relationship

between two
species in which
one species, the
parasite,
benefits fro the
other species,
the host, which
is harmed.

Commensalism
A relationship

between two
organisms in
which one
organism
benefits and
the other is
unaffected.

Review questions!

Question 1
A. Mutualism B. Predation
C. Parasitism D.Commensalism

Question 2
2. Ants and acacia trees have a mutualistic
relationship because
A. They both benefit from living with each
other.
B. They are part of the same ecosystem.
C. They are both adapted to a humid climate.
D. The ants eat part of the acacia tree.

Question 3

3. Male bull sea lions fighting for beach


master dominance and the first pick of
female cows during mating season is an
example of which symbiotic
relationship?
A. Competition

Question 4
4. What does symbiosis mean?
A. living separately, no relationship
between 2 species
B. living together, close relationship
between 2 species
C. living in a community with no
interaction between each other
D. living together in fear of each other

Question 5
5. What type of relationship is
Commensalism?
A. One species benefits and the other is
not affected at all.
B. Both species involved benefit from the
relationship.
C. One species benefits and the other is
harmed.
D. Competing for the same food source

Question 6
A remora hitching a ride on the shark is
an example of which symbiotic
relationship?

A.
B.
C.
D.

Predator/prey
Mutualism
Parasitism
Commensalism

Question 7
Which of the following relationships
identifies a situation in which two species
share a requirement for a limited resource
thus reducing the fitness of one or both
species?
A. Competition
B. Mutualism
C. Parasitism
D. Decomposition

Question 8
A hawk soaring above a field
hunting for a field mouse is an
example of which relationship?
A. Commensalism
B. Mutualism
C. Symbolism
D. Predation

Question 9

This is an example of which


relationship?
A. Commensalism
B. Mutualism
C. Symbolism
D. Predation

Question 10

The bacteria in our large intestine break


down food that we consider waste. During
this process, vitamins are released that we
absorb into our bloodstream. This is an
example of which symbiotic relationship?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Parasitism
Commensalism
Competition
Mutualism

Ecology
Which organism is a producer in the mangrove

swamp?
A. crab
B. mold

C. pelican
D. phytoplankton

D. phytoplankton

Ecology
Whats the difference between abiotic and

biotic?
..
Abiotic = nonliving factors

Biotic = living factors

Ecology
Which of the following is a characteristic of scavengers

that makes them different from carnivores?


A. Scavengers eat only plant materials.
B. Scavengers are omnivores that always eat live
animals.
C. Scavengers are omnivores that eat dead plants and
animals.
D. Scavengers are able to produce their own food when
no other food is available.
C. Scavengers are omnivores that eat dead

plants and animals.

Ecology
Herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores are

three types of
.
consumers

Ecology
Remoras are small fish that attach to sharks but do not harm

them. When sharks tear prey apart, remoras eat the


leftovers. What statement about the relationship between
remoras and sharks is true?
A. Remoras and sharks have a predator-prey relationship.
B. The remoras and sharks are an example of mutualism.
C. Remoras and sharks are an example of parasitism.
D. The remoras and sharks is an example of
commensalism.
D.

The remoras and sharks is an example of


commensalism.

Ecology
What is being transferred in a food web or

food chain??

energy

Ecology
If a squirrel eats an acorn, and a snake eats

the squirrel, and a hawk eats the snake,


which organism is a tertiary (C3)
consumer?
.
The hawk

Ecology
Ecological environments can be divided into different

levels of organization. From the following choices,


identify the correct order from largest to smallest.
A. ecosystem, population, community, individual
B. community, ecosystem, population, individual
C. ecosystem, community, population, individual
D. individual, population, community, ecosystem
C. ecosystem, community, population,

individual

Ecology
Cogongrass, a nonnative species of grass, grows in many areas of

Florida. Its roots can spread quickly underground. Cogongrass


thrives where fires allow it to spread. Which of the following is a
negative effect that cogongrass could have on other organisms in
its habitat?
A. It provides places for animals in the habitat to hide.
B. It provides a new source of food for animals in the habitat.
C. It replaces native plants that animals depend on for food or
shelter.
D. It contributes nutrients to the soil in the habitat so that soil
organisms can grow.
C. It replaces native plants that animals depend on for

food or shelter.

Ecology
Honeybees are important pollinators of flowers. Mites

that live in the bodies of bees can attack honeybee


colonies. Some birds, amphibians, and insects eat
honeybees. Which of the following relationships is not
included in the description above?
A. parasitism
C. commensalism
B. mutualism
D. predator-prey
C. commensalism

Ecology
Earths environments include both biotic and abiotic

factors that living things need to survive. Large


mangrove ecosystems are found along the coastlines in
Florida. Which of the following are both abiotic
factors in the mangrove ecosystem?
A. water and pelican
C. pelican and crab
B. sun and rocks
D. snail and water
B. sun and rocks

Ecology
Two types of global food webs show the feeding

relationships of organisms. What distinguishes one type of


global web from the other?
A. whether or not the food web includes tertiary
consumers
B. whether the producers on the food web are located on
land or in water
C. whether the web includes animals that migrate long
during the year
D. whether the ecosystem described by the web is
localized or very broad
B.

whether the producers on the food web are


located on land or in water

Ecology
The Florida panther is an endangered species. It eats mostly

white-tailed deer, wild pigs, raccoons, and armadillos, but it may


also eat other small mammals and birds. The Florida panther used
to live in forests, prairies, and swamps over most of the
southeastern United States. Now it lives only in the southern tip of
Florida, south of the Caloosahatchee River. What is the most
likely cause of the decline of the Florida panther population?
A. The unintentional introduction of a larger predator (predation).
B. The break-up of the panthers natural habitat by human

settlement (urbanification).
C. All the water has dried up (desertification).
D. Competition for territory between panthers (competition).
B. The break-up of the panthers natural habitat by
human settlement (urbanification).

Ecology
Devon noticed that it has rained much more this year than it

did in each of the previous 10 years. How might this increase


in rainfall affect populations in the area?
A. Populations for whom water is a limiting factor will
increase in size.
B. Populations for whom water is a limiting factor will
decrease in size.
C. Populations for whom water is not a limiting factor will
increase in size.
D. Populations for whom water is not a limiting factor will
decrease in size.
A. Populations for whom water is a limiting factor
will increase in size.

Ecology
The interiors of some plants have tunnels and holes that

ants can live in. These plants may also produce food on
their leaves that ants like to eat. Which of the following is
not a likely reason that some plants are adapted to
attract ants?
A. Ants could pollinate the plants flowers.
B. Ants could farm aphids, which eat the plants sap.
C. Ants could attack invaders that might eat the plant.
D. Ants could die, adding nutrients to the soil below the
plant.
B. Ants could farm aphids, which eat the plants
sap.

Ecology
A company is planning to build a new factory that uses

freshwater pumped from a river to cool its machines while


they operate. The company plans on constructing the new
factory near an estuary. The freshwater used by the factory
will be cooled back to outside temperatures and then released
into the estuary. Which limiting factor in the estuary would be
affected by the building of this new factory?
A. sunlight penetration
B. salt levels in the water
C. nutrient levels in the soil
D. temperature of the water
B. salt levels in the water

Ecology
Diseases are often thought of as a bad thing. Which of

the following is the best example of how diseases help


ecosystems maintain balance?
A. If a predator becomes too vicious, a disease could
wipe it out and save all of its prey.
B. If an endangered producer species is almost gone,
a disease could help make them go extinct.
C. If an invasive species population gets too large, a
disease could reduce its numbers.
C. If an invasive species population gets too
large, a disease could reduce its numbers.

Ecology
Beavers were brought and released in South America in

1946 to help raise money. Since then, they have caused


millions of dollars of damage to timber industries and
their dams have killed grasslands and damaged roads.
What would you call the beavers in South America?
A. Native species
B. Introduced/Invasive species
C. Producers
D. Scavengers
B. Introduced/Invasive species

Ecology
Which is an example of parasitism?
A. Two species of insects that feed on the same rare

plant.
B. A bobcat and a jackrabbit.
C. An African lioness feeding her cubs.
D. A tick living on a dog.
D. A tick living on a dog.

Ecology
Which is an example of competition?
A. Two species of insect that feed on the same rare plant.
B. A bobcat and a jackrabbit
C. An African lioness feeding her cubs
D. A tick living on a dog.
A. Two species of insect that feed on the same

rare plant.

Final Question!!!!
Talk to your group to decide how
many points you want to wager.
If you get the Final Question
correct, you will add the wagered
points to your score.
If you dont, you will lose the
points.

Final Question: Roles in Energy Transfer


Describe the path that energy takes through a food

chain.
Sun, producers, consumers (primary or C1,

secondary or C2,tertiary or C3 and also


herbivore, omnivore, carnivore),
decomposers (scavengers)