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Heri Suryoatmojo, PhD

Review :
DC Machines

Generators convert mechanical energy to electric energy.

Motors convert electric energy to mechanical energy.

Faradays Law
-> Dynamically & statically induced.

The construction of motors and generators are similar.

DC generator

DC Motor Parts
carbon brushes

Field magnet

rotor
stator

AC Generators / Alternators

Same principles as DC generators ->


armature winding & magnetic field.
Armature winding -> stator
field winding -> rotor

MESIN SINKRON
Stator
Rotor
kutub silindris (kec. Tinggi)
kutub salient / menojol (kec.Rendah)
Ada Kutub Luar dan Kutub Dalam
Kebanyakan kutub dalam

Kutub Luar dan Kutub Dalam

Why stationary armature?

Without brush contact->


The output current can be led directly from fixed terminals
on the stator (armature windings) to the load circuit.
Easier to insulate stationary armature winding for high AC
voltages (may be as high as 30 kV or more)
Sliding contacts i.e. slip-rings are transferred to the lowvoltage, low-power DC field circuit-> easily insulated
**Armature windings can be more easily braced to prevent
any deformation produced by the mechanical stresses
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Kenapa Kutub Dalam?


Tegangan yang dibangkitkan biasanya antara 18 kv
24 kv, maka tegangan ini tidak perlu dikeluarkan
melalui cincin slip dan kontak geser tetapi dapat
dikeluarkan langsung ke alat penghubung.
Ada keuntungan mekanis, getaran lilitan jangkar
berkurang dan gaya sentrifugal menjadi lebih baik
Kumparan medan yang berputar dicatu dgn arus dc
pd teg. 125, 250 atau 375 volt melalui cincin slip dan
sikat, atau langsung dgn kabel antara medan
dengan penyearah untk sistem eksitasi tanpa sikat.

SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES
Housing ,cooling ducts
Stator

Rotor

Shaft

Bearing
Rotor winding
Stator winding
Connections
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SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES
Stator
Laminated iron
core with slots
Steel Housing

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SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES
Iron core

Stator details
Coils are placed in
slots

Coil
Slots

Coil end windings


are bent to form the
armature winding.

End winding

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http://thomasblairpe.com/PPE/lecture8.pdf

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??

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BSE Teknik Pembangkit Tenaga Listrik

**2 kinds of rotor

Round rotor
Salient Rotor

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Round rotor
Usually for high alternators

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SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES
Round rotor

Steel ring
Shaft

Wedges
DC current terminals
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Rotor Kutub Silindris


Putaran Tinggi- Turbin Uap/Gas

BSE Teknik
Pembangkit
Tenaga Listrik

SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES
Rotor Details

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SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES
Round rotor
Round rotor

The round rotor is used


for large high speed
(3600rpm) machines.

A forged iron core (not


laminated,DC)
is
installed on the shaft.

Slots are milled in the


iron and insulated
copper bars are placed
in the slots.

The slots are closed by


wedges and re-enforced
with steel rings.
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SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES
Round Rotor Machine

The stator is a ring


shaped laminated ironcore with slots.
Three phase windings
are placed in the slots.
Round solid iron rotor
with slots.
A single winding is
placed in the slots. Dc
current is supplied
through slip rings.

Concept (two poles)


A

Stator with
laminated iron-core

Slots with
winding

B
A

Rotor with dc
winding

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Salient rotor
Usually for low- & medium-speed alternators

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SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES

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Rotor Kutub Menonjol (Salient)


Putaran Rendah-Turbin air, Mesin Disel

Rotor Kutub Menonjol (Salient)

SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES

Concept (two poles)

Salient Rotor Machine

The stator has a laminated


iron-core with slots and three
phase windings placed in the
slots.

B-

C+
N

A+

A-

The rotor has salient poles


excited by dc current.
DC current is supplied to the
rotor through slip-rings and
brushes.

C-

B+

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SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES

Construction

Construction

The picture shows the laminated


iron core and the slots (empty
and with winding).
The winding consists of copper
bars insulated with mica and
epoxy resin.
The conductors are secured by
steel wedges.
In large machines, the stator is
liquid cooled.
The iron core is supported by a
steel housing.

empty slots

insulated
winding

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SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES
Salient pole rotor construction

The poles are bolted to the shaft.


Each pole has a DC winding.
The DC winding is connected to the slip-rings (not shown).
A DC source supplies the winding with DC through brushes
pressed into the slip ring.
A fan is installed on the shaft to assure air circulation and
effective cooling.

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SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES

Construction

Low speed, large hydrogenerators may have more


than one hundred poles.
-> relationship between speed &
poles

These
generators
are
frequently mounted vertically.

The picture shows a large,


horizontally
arranged
machine.
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Exciter

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Exciter pada Generator AC Konvensional

Arus dc diperoleh dari sebuah generator dc kecil - DC Exciter

Static Exciter Generator


Exciternya tidak turut berputar, berupa penyearah

Brushless Generator

Brushless Generator

.menggunakan penyearah yg ikut berputar bersama dg rotor.


.Exciternya berupa generator ac kecil dgn kutub luar.
.Pada gen AC kecil: Kutubnya mendapatkan sumber dc seperti pd static exciter, sedang
di rotornya timbul teg ac yang disearahkan dan langsung dimasukkan pada rotor
generator utama.
.Teg pd stator utama dipakai untuk beban dan sebagian kecil untuk eksitasi.

Brushless Generator
Static exciter masih perlu sikat
Brushless tidak, tapi menggunakan penyearah yg ikut
berputar bersama dg rotor.
Exciternya berupa generator ac kecil dgn kutub luar.
Kutubnya mendapatkan sumber dc seperti pd static
exciter, sedang di rotornya timbul teg ac yang
disearahkan dan langsung dimasukkan pada rotor
generator utama. Teg pd stator utama dipakai untuk
beban dan sebagian kecil untuk eksitasi.

Thank You, see you next week

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Different construction of synch. Gen


& DC gen ->
Which one precedes?

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