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OBJECTIVES

Define Wind Energy


Explain Principle of Wind Energy

Conversion
Derive Maximum Power Available in Wind
Define Power Coefficient
Define Wind Power Density

WIND ENERGY
Caused by solar energy irradiating with earth.

Wind results from motion of air.

Solar radiation heats the air near the equator and

this low density air moves up and replaces the


denser air at the poles.
Hence wind energy is also called as indirect solar

energy.

PRINCIPLE OF WIND ENERGY CONVERSION


The circulation of air in the atmosphere is caused

by the non-uniform heating of the earths surfaces.


The air immediately above a warm area expands;
it is forced upwards by cool, denser air which flows
in from surrounding areas causing a wind.
During the day the air above the landmass tends
to heat up more rapidly than the air over water.
This causes the seashore breeze in coastal
regions.
At night, the process is reversed because the air
cools down more rapidly over the land than water,
therefore flows off shore. This is called hill side or
mountain side breeze.

PRINCIPLE OF WIND ENERGY CONVERSION


Wind energy is thus the kinetic energy associated

with the movement at atmospheric air.


The kinetic energy of the wind can be converted
to mechanical energy that can be utilized to
perform useful work or to generate electricity.
Machines that convert wind energy into
mechanical energy are known as WIND TURBINES.
Wind turbines when connected to a generator
convert the wind energy to electrical energy. The
combination of wind turbine and generator is
called AERO GENERATOR.

PRINCIPLE OF WIND ENERGY CONVERSION


The two basic principles by which energy can be

extracted by wind are through creation of lift and


drag forces.

PRINCIPLE OF WIND ENERGY CONVERSION

DERIVATION OF MAXIMUM POWER IN


WIND
o Any device capable of slowing down the mass of
moving air like a sail or a propeller can extract
part of the energy and convert it to useful work.
o The factors that determine the output from wind
energy are
The wind speed
The cross section of wind swept by rotor
The overall conversion efficiency of rotor
o The wind mill works on the principle of
converting kinetic energy of wind to mechanical
energy.

DERIVATION OF MAXIMUM POWER IN


WIND

o Power is defined as energy per unit time.

1
2
Kinetic energy mV
2
m = x Volume
m = x A V 2
1
3
KE = A V Watts
2

3 (from 1 & 2)

DERIVATION OF MAXIMUM POWER IN


WIND

Since the area is normally circular of diameter D in


horizontal axis wind turbine then,

2
2
A=
D
m 4
4
1 2 3
Pa = D V Watts ( from 3 & 4)
2 4
1
2 3
Pa = D V Watts
8

The above equation tells us that maximum power


available from wind varies according to square of
diameter of intercept area (square of rotor diameter)
and cube of the wind speed.

DERIVATION OF MAXIMUM POWER IN


WIND

POWER COEFICIENT

The power extracted by rotor is equal to product of


wind speed passing through the rotor (Vr) and the
pressure drop P.

POWER COEFICIENT

The fraction of free flow wind power that can be

extracted by a rotor is called the POWER


COEFFIENT.

Power of Wind Rotor


Power Coefficient (C P ) =
Power Available in Wind
P
1
= V 3 Watts / m 2 ( from 3)
A
2

The term is called WIND POWER DENSITY

(WPD) and has unit watt/m2.


Thus the average available wind power per unit
area is directly related to the average of the wind
speed cubed.

POWER COEFICIENT

The maximum theoretical value for power

coefficient is equal to 16/27 or 0.593.


This value cannot be exceeded by a rotor in a free
flow wind stream.
The factor 0.593 is known as Betz coefficient
(derived by a German physicist Albert Betz)
Pmax = 0.593P
Where, P = available power , Pmax = maximum
power
For the best practical rotors, the power coefficient
is about 0.4 to 0.45.
Hence the rotors cannot be used for more than 40
to 45% of the available power.
In conversion into electric power coefficient of

OBJECTIVES
Describe Site Selection Criteria for Wind Mills
List Advantages and Disadvantages of Wind

Energy
Classify Wind Energy Conversion Systems
Explain Design of Horizontal Axis Machine
Classify Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines
(HAWT)
Explain different types of HAWT

SITE SELECTION CONSIDERATION FOR


WIND MILL
Availability of Higher Constant Wind Speed
Availability of Wind at the Proposed Site
Wind Structure at the Proposed Site
Altitude of the Proposed Site
Terrains Available
Local Ecology
Distance to Roads or Railway
Nearness of Site to Local Centre/Users
Nature of Ground
Favorable Land Cost
Other Conditions

ADVANTAGES OF WIND ENERGY


CONVERSION
Renewable source of energy.
Nonpolluting, so it has no adverse effects on the

environment.
Avoid fuel provision and transport.
On small scale upto a few kilowatt system is less
costly.
On a large scale costs can be competitive with
conventional electricity and lower costs could be
achieved by mass production.

DISADVANTAGES OF WIND ENERGY


CONVERSION
Available as dilute and fluctuating in nature.
Needs
storage
capacity
because
of

its

irregularities.
Noisy in operation.
Relatively high overall weight.
Large area is required to erect wind turbines.
Present systems are neither maintenance free nor
practically reliable.

CLASSIFICATION OF WIND ENERGY


CONVERSION SYSTEM
o On the basis of axis
Horizontal Axis Machines
Vertical Axis Machines
oAccording to electrical output
Small Scale (upto 2KW)
Medium Size (2-100 KW)
Large Scale (above 100 KW)
oAccording to output power
DC output
AC output

CLASSIFICATION OF WIND ENERGY


CONVERSION SYSTEM
oAccording to rotational speed
Constant speed with variable pitch blades
Nearly constant speed with fixed pitch blades
Variable speed with fixed pitch blades
oAccording to utilization of output
Battery storage
Direct connection to an electromagnetic energy

convertor
Other forms (thermal potential) of storage
Interconnection with conventional electric utility goods

HORIZONTAL AXIS WIND TURBINE (HAWT)

DESIGN
Rotor
The Windmill Head
Generator
Controls
Transmissions
Towers
Yaw Control

HORIZONTAL AXIS WIND TURBINE (HAWT)

DESIGN
Towers

HORIZONTAL AXIS WIND TURBINE (HAWT)

WORKING
When wind strikes the blades of the rotor some

of the kinetic energy passed by the wind is


absorbed by the wind turbine.

The absorbed kinetic energy is converted to

mechanical energy and further to electric energy


after coupling it to a generator.

HORIZONTAL AXIS WIND TURBINE (HAWT)

CLASSIFICATION

Horizontal axis using two aerodynamic blades


Horizontal axis propeller type using single

blades

Horizontal axis wind mill- multi-blade type


Horizontal axis wind mill- Dutch type
Horizontal axis wind mill- Sail type

HORIZONTAL AXIS WIND TURBINE (HAWT)


Horizontal axis using two aerodynamic blades

HORIZONTAL AXIS WIND TURBINE (HAWT)


Horizontal axis using two aerodynamic blades
Rotor is oriented downwind of the tower

generator through a step up gear box.

and drives a

The components are mounted on a bed plate attached on

a pintle at the top of the tower.

Rotor blades can be continuously flexed.


Rotors with more than two blades are not recommended

due to its high cost.

Slightly higher power coefficient can be obtained using 3

to 4 blades.

BACK

HORIZONTAL AXIS WIND TURBINE (HAWT)


Horizontal axis propeller type using single blades

HORIZONTAL AXIS WIND TURBINE (HAWT)


Horizontal axis propeller type using single blades
oA long blade is mounted on a rigid hub with

induction generator and gear box.

oCounter weight is used which balances long blade

centrifugally as well as reduces rotor cost.

oLarge blades (above 60 m) are not recommended

as root bending moment may occur due to tower


shadow, gravity and sudden shifts in wind
directions.

HORIZONTAL AXIS WIND TURBINE (HAWT)


Horizontal axis propeller type using single blades

Advantages of one bladed rotor


oSimple blade controls lower blade weight and
cost, lower gear box cost

oCounter weight costs less than a second blade.


oCounter weight can be inclined to reduce blade

coning.

oPitch bearings do not carry centrifugal force.


oBlade root spar can be large diameter ie more

rugged.

HORIZONTAL AXIS WIND TURBINE (HAWT)


Horizontal axis propeller type using single blades

Disadvantages of one bladed rotor

oVibration produced, due to aerodynamic torque.


oUnconventional appearance.
oLarge blade root bending moment.
oStarting torque reduced by ground boundary

layer.

oOne-per-rev coriolis torque produced, due to

flapping.

BACK

HORIZONTAL AXIS WIND TURBINE (HAWT)


Horizontal axis wind mill- multi-blade type
In

this, the blades are


made from sheet metal or
aluminium.
The

rotors have high


strength to weight ratios.
They

have good power


coefficient, high starting
torque and added advantage
of simplicity and low cost.
BACK

HORIZONTAL AXIS WIND TURBINE (HAWT)


Horizontal axis wind mill- Dutch type
The blade surface is made

from an array of wooden


slats which feather at high
wind speeds.

BACK

HORIZONTAL AXIS WIND TURBINE (HAWT)


Horizontal axis wind mill- Sail type
The blade surfaces are made

from cloth, nylon or plastics


arranged as mast and pole or
sail wings.
There

is variation
number of sails used.

in

the

OBJECTIVES
Explain Design of Vertical Axis Machine
Explain Working of Vertical Axis Machine
List Advantages and Disadvantages of

Vertical Axis Machine


Classify Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWT)
Explain different types of VAWT

VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE (VAWT)

VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE (VAWT)


Construction
It consists of a rotor that is arranged vertically.
The gear box and the generator are placed at the

bottom so that the tower does not need support.

The advantage with this type of system is that the

rotor blades need not be adjusted according to the


wind direction.

VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE (VAWT)


Working
oThe wind passes over the blades of the turbine

and it will rotate regardless its direction.

oThe kinetic energy of the wind will be given to its

blades.

oWhen the blades are rotating this gives

mechanical energy to the generator shaft through


gear box which produces electricity.

VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE (VAWT)


Advantages of Vertical Axis Over Horizontal
Axis
They will react to wind from any direction and hence do

not need yawing equipment to turn the rotor in the wind.


They

require less structure support because


component are located at the ground level.

heavy

Since the blades does not turn end over end so rotor is not

subjected to continuous cyclic gravity loads.

Disadvantages of Vertical Axis Over Horizontal


Axis
The designs of the vertical axis turbines have not been

developed yet.

VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE (VAWT)


CLASSIFICATION
Savonious Rotor
Darrieus Rotor

VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE (VAWT)


Savonious Rotor

VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE (VAWT)


Savonious Rotor

oIt consists of two half cylinders facing opposite direction in

such a way as to have a S-shaped cross -section.


oThese two semicircular drums are mounted on a vertical
axis perpendicular to the wind direction with a gap between
the two drums.
oIrrespective of the wind direction the rotor rotates such as
to make the convex sides of the bucket head into wind
turbine.
oFrom the rotor shaft we can tap power for use like
pumping, battery charging, grinders, winnower blowers etc.
oThe main characteristics of Savonious rotor are as follows
Self-Starting
Low Speed
Low efficiency.

VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE (VAWT)


Savonious Rotor
Advantages

oIt has a vertical axis which eliminates the expensive power

transmission system from the rotor to axis.


oThe direction of wind is not a major criteria for the rotor
blade to rotate.
oIt performs even at low wind velocity ranges.
oYaw and pitch controls are not needed.
oIt has simple structure.
oGround level mounting of generator and gearing permits
easy access and maintenance and reduces the tower costs.
oOverall weight of the turbine may be substantially less
than the conventional systems.

VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE (VAWT)


Savonious Rotor
Disadvantages

oFor large installations the rotor blade would require excess

material. Hence the system will become very heavy.


oThe rotor area required for getting the required amount of
power is higher than other systems.

VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE (VAWT)


Savonious Rotor
Applications

oMost commonly used for pumping.


oTo operate agricultural machines like winnowers, blower,

grinders etc.
oIt is used along with Darrieus rotor turbine for starting
purposes.

BACK

VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE (VAWT)


Darrieus Rotor

VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE (VAWT)

Darrieus Rotor
oIt has 2 or 3 thin, curved blades (egg beater) with

airfoil cross section and constant cord length.


oBoth the ends of blades are attached to a vertical
shaft.
oThus force in the blade due to rotation is pure
tension.
oThis provides a stiffness to help withstand the
wind forces.
oThe blades used are lighter than that of a
propeller type.
oWhen rotating, these airfoil blades provide a
torque about the central shaft.
oThis shaft torque is transmitted to a generator at
the base of the central shaft for power generation.

VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE (VAWT)


Darrieus Rotor
oThe characteristics of Darrieus rotor are as follows
Not self starting
High Speed
High efficiency
Potentially low capital cost
oDarrieus rotors can be combined with various

types of auxiliary rotors to increase their starting


torques.
oThe blades are usually shaped like an egg beater
to minimize the bending stresses caused due to
centrifugal forces.

VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE (VAWT)


Darrieus Rotor

Advantages

oThe rotor blades can accept wind from any

direction.
oMachine can be mounted on the ground
eliminating tower structures and lifting of huge
weight of machine assembly.
oSince this machine has vertical axis symmetry it
eliminates the yaw control requirements.
oAirfoil rotor fabrication is reduced over the
conventional rotor blade costs.
oThe tip speed ratio and power coefficient are
considerably better than savonious rotor machine.

VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE (VAWT)

Darrieus Rotor

Disadvantages

oDarrieus machines are not self starting machines

and require mechanical aid for start up.


oRotor power output efficiency is lower compared
to a conventional horizontal rotor.
oBecause a darrieus rotor is generally situated
near ground so it may also have lower velocity.
oBecause a darrieus rotor encounters greatly
varied flow conditions per revolution, greater
vibratory stress are encountered this will affect
rotor system.
oDarrieus rotor cannot be yawed out of the wind
and a special braking torque must be incorporated.