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# OBJECTIVES

## Define Wind Energy

Explain Principle of Wind Energy

Conversion
Derive Maximum Power Available in Wind
Define Power Coefficient
Define Wind Power Density

WIND ENERGY
Caused by solar energy irradiating with earth.

## this low density air moves up and replaces the

denser air at the poles.
Hence wind energy is also called as indirect solar

energy.

## PRINCIPLE OF WIND ENERGY CONVERSION

The circulation of air in the atmosphere is caused

## by the non-uniform heating of the earths surfaces.

The air immediately above a warm area expands;
it is forced upwards by cool, denser air which flows
in from surrounding areas causing a wind.
During the day the air above the landmass tends
to heat up more rapidly than the air over water.
This causes the seashore breeze in coastal
regions.
At night, the process is reversed because the air
cools down more rapidly over the land than water,
therefore flows off shore. This is called hill side or
mountain side breeze.

## PRINCIPLE OF WIND ENERGY CONVERSION

Wind energy is thus the kinetic energy associated

## with the movement at atmospheric air.

The kinetic energy of the wind can be converted
to mechanical energy that can be utilized to
perform useful work or to generate electricity.
Machines that convert wind energy into
mechanical energy are known as WIND TURBINES.
Wind turbines when connected to a generator
convert the wind energy to electrical energy. The
combination of wind turbine and generator is
called AERO GENERATOR.

## PRINCIPLE OF WIND ENERGY CONVERSION

The two basic principles by which energy can be

drag forces.

## DERIVATION OF MAXIMUM POWER IN

WIND
o Any device capable of slowing down the mass of
moving air like a sail or a propeller can extract
part of the energy and convert it to useful work.
o The factors that determine the output from wind
energy are
The wind speed
The cross section of wind swept by rotor
The overall conversion efficiency of rotor
o The wind mill works on the principle of
converting kinetic energy of wind to mechanical
energy.

WIND

## o Power is defined as energy per unit time.

1
2
Kinetic energy mV
2
m = x Volume
m = x A V 2
1
3
KE = A V Watts
2

3 (from 1 & 2)

WIND

## Since the area is normally circular of diameter D in

horizontal axis wind turbine then,

2
2
A=
D
m 4
4
1 2 3
Pa = D V Watts ( from 3 & 4)
2 4
1
2 3
Pa = D V Watts
8

## The above equation tells us that maximum power

available from wind varies according to square of
diameter of intercept area (square of rotor diameter)
and cube of the wind speed.

WIND

POWER COEFICIENT

## The power extracted by rotor is equal to product of

wind speed passing through the rotor (Vr) and the
pressure drop P.

POWER COEFICIENT

COEFFIENT.

## Power of Wind Rotor

Power Coefficient (C P ) =
Power Available in Wind
P
1
= V 3 Watts / m 2 ( from 3)
A
2

## (WPD) and has unit watt/m2.

Thus the average available wind power per unit
area is directly related to the average of the wind
speed cubed.

POWER COEFICIENT

## coefficient is equal to 16/27 or 0.593.

This value cannot be exceeded by a rotor in a free
flow wind stream.
The factor 0.593 is known as Betz coefficient
(derived by a German physicist Albert Betz)
Pmax = 0.593P
Where, P = available power , Pmax = maximum
power
For the best practical rotors, the power coefficient
Hence the rotors cannot be used for more than 40
to 45% of the available power.
In conversion into electric power coefficient of

OBJECTIVES
Describe Site Selection Criteria for Wind Mills

Energy
Classify Wind Energy Conversion Systems
Explain Design of Horizontal Axis Machine
Classify Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines
(HAWT)
Explain different types of HAWT

## SITE SELECTION CONSIDERATION FOR

WIND MILL
Availability of Higher Constant Wind Speed
Availability of Wind at the Proposed Site
Wind Structure at the Proposed Site
Altitude of the Proposed Site
Terrains Available
Local Ecology
Nearness of Site to Local Centre/Users
Nature of Ground
Favorable Land Cost
Other Conditions

CONVERSION
Renewable source of energy.
Nonpolluting, so it has no adverse effects on the

environment.
Avoid fuel provision and transport.
On small scale upto a few kilowatt system is less
costly.
On a large scale costs can be competitive with
conventional electricity and lower costs could be
achieved by mass production.

CONVERSION
Available as dilute and fluctuating in nature.
Needs
storage
capacity
because
of

its

irregularities.
Noisy in operation.
Relatively high overall weight.
Large area is required to erect wind turbines.
Present systems are neither maintenance free nor
practically reliable.

## CLASSIFICATION OF WIND ENERGY

CONVERSION SYSTEM
o On the basis of axis
Horizontal Axis Machines
Vertical Axis Machines
oAccording to electrical output
Small Scale (upto 2KW)
Medium Size (2-100 KW)
Large Scale (above 100 KW)
oAccording to output power
DC output
AC output

## CLASSIFICATION OF WIND ENERGY

CONVERSION SYSTEM
oAccording to rotational speed
Constant speed with variable pitch blades
Nearly constant speed with fixed pitch blades
Variable speed with fixed pitch blades
oAccording to utilization of output
Battery storage
Direct connection to an electromagnetic energy

convertor
Other forms (thermal potential) of storage
Interconnection with conventional electric utility goods

DESIGN
Rotor
Generator
Controls
Transmissions
Towers
Yaw Control

DESIGN
Towers

## HORIZONTAL AXIS WIND TURBINE (HAWT)

WORKING
When wind strikes the blades of the rotor some

## of the kinetic energy passed by the wind is

absorbed by the wind turbine.

## mechanical energy and further to electric energy

after coupling it to a generator.

CLASSIFICATION

## Horizontal axis using two aerodynamic blades

Horizontal axis propeller type using single

## Horizontal axis wind mill- multi-blade type

Horizontal axis wind mill- Dutch type
Horizontal axis wind mill- Sail type

## HORIZONTAL AXIS WIND TURBINE (HAWT)

Horizontal axis using two aerodynamic blades

## HORIZONTAL AXIS WIND TURBINE (HAWT)

Horizontal axis using two aerodynamic blades
Rotor is oriented downwind of the tower

and drives a

## Rotor blades can be continuously flexed.

Rotors with more than two blades are not recommended

BACK

## HORIZONTAL AXIS WIND TURBINE (HAWT)

Horizontal axis propeller type using single blades

## HORIZONTAL AXIS WIND TURBINE (HAWT)

Horizontal axis propeller type using single blades
oA long blade is mounted on a rigid hub with

## as root bending moment may occur due to tower

shadow, gravity and sudden shifts in wind
directions.

## HORIZONTAL AXIS WIND TURBINE (HAWT)

Horizontal axis propeller type using single blades

cost, lower gear box cost

## oCounter weight costs less than a second blade.

oCounter weight can be inclined to reduce blade

coning.

## oPitch bearings do not carry centrifugal force.

oBlade root spar can be large diameter ie more

rugged.

## HORIZONTAL AXIS WIND TURBINE (HAWT)

Horizontal axis propeller type using single blades

## oVibration produced, due to aerodynamic torque.

oUnconventional appearance.
oStarting torque reduced by ground boundary

layer.

flapping.

BACK

## HORIZONTAL AXIS WIND TURBINE (HAWT)

Horizontal axis wind mill- multi-blade type
In

aluminium.
The

## rotors have high

strength to weight ratios.
They

## have good power

coefficient, high starting
of simplicity and low cost.
BACK

## HORIZONTAL AXIS WIND TURBINE (HAWT)

Horizontal axis wind mill- Dutch type

## from an array of wooden

slats which feather at high
wind speeds.

BACK

## HORIZONTAL AXIS WIND TURBINE (HAWT)

Horizontal axis wind mill- Sail type

## from cloth, nylon or plastics

arranged as mast and pole or
sail wings.
There

is variation
number of sails used.

in

the

OBJECTIVES
Explain Design of Vertical Axis Machine
Explain Working of Vertical Axis Machine

## Vertical Axis Machine

Classify Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWT)
Explain different types of VAWT

## VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE (VAWT)

Construction
It consists of a rotor that is arranged vertically.
The gear box and the generator are placed at the

wind direction.

## VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE (VAWT)

Working
oThe wind passes over the blades of the turbine

## mechanical energy to the generator shaft through

gear box which produces electricity.

## VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE (VAWT)

Advantages of Vertical Axis Over Horizontal
Axis
They will react to wind from any direction and hence do

They

## require less structure support because

component are located at the ground level.

heavy

Since the blades does not turn end over end so rotor is not

## Disadvantages of Vertical Axis Over Horizontal

Axis
The designs of the vertical axis turbines have not been

developed yet.

CLASSIFICATION
Savonious Rotor
Darrieus Rotor

Savonious Rotor

Savonious Rotor

## such a way as to have a S-shaped cross -section.

oThese two semicircular drums are mounted on a vertical
axis perpendicular to the wind direction with a gap between
the two drums.
oIrrespective of the wind direction the rotor rotates such as
to make the convex sides of the bucket head into wind
turbine.
oFrom the rotor shaft we can tap power for use like
pumping, battery charging, grinders, winnower blowers etc.
oThe main characteristics of Savonious rotor are as follows
Self-Starting
Low Speed
Low efficiency.

Savonious Rotor

## transmission system from the rotor to axis.

oThe direction of wind is not a major criteria for the rotor
oIt performs even at low wind velocity ranges.
oYaw and pitch controls are not needed.
oIt has simple structure.
oGround level mounting of generator and gearing permits
easy access and maintenance and reduces the tower costs.
oOverall weight of the turbine may be substantially less
than the conventional systems.

Savonious Rotor

## material. Hence the system will become very heavy.

oThe rotor area required for getting the required amount of
power is higher than other systems.

Savonious Rotor
Applications

## oMost commonly used for pumping.

oTo operate agricultural machines like winnowers, blower,

grinders etc.
oIt is used along with Darrieus rotor turbine for starting
purposes.

BACK

Darrieus Rotor

## VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE (VAWT)

Darrieus Rotor
oIt has 2 or 3 thin, curved blades (egg beater) with

## airfoil cross section and constant cord length.

oBoth the ends of blades are attached to a vertical
shaft.
oThus force in the blade due to rotation is pure
tension.
oThis provides a stiffness to help withstand the
wind forces.
oThe blades used are lighter than that of a
propeller type.
oWhen rotating, these airfoil blades provide a
oThis shaft torque is transmitted to a generator at
the base of the central shaft for power generation.

## VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE (VAWT)

Darrieus Rotor
oThe characteristics of Darrieus rotor are as follows
Not self starting
High Speed
High efficiency
Potentially low capital cost
oDarrieus rotors can be combined with various

## types of auxiliary rotors to increase their starting

torques.
oThe blades are usually shaped like an egg beater
to minimize the bending stresses caused due to
centrifugal forces.

Darrieus Rotor

## oThe rotor blades can accept wind from any

direction.
oMachine can be mounted on the ground
eliminating tower structures and lifting of huge
weight of machine assembly.
oSince this machine has vertical axis symmetry it
eliminates the yaw control requirements.
oAirfoil rotor fabrication is reduced over the
oThe tip speed ratio and power coefficient are
considerably better than savonious rotor machine.

Darrieus Rotor

## and require mechanical aid for start up.

oRotor power output efficiency is lower compared
to a conventional horizontal rotor.
oBecause a darrieus rotor is generally situated
near ground so it may also have lower velocity.
oBecause a darrieus rotor encounters greatly
varied flow conditions per revolution, greater
vibratory stress are encountered this will affect
rotor system.
oDarrieus rotor cannot be yawed out of the wind
and a special braking torque must be incorporated.