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A scalar is a quantity that has only magnitude.

Examples are time, mass, distance, temperature,

entropy, electric potential etc

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DEFINATION

A vector is a quantity that has both magnitude

and direction.

Examples are velocity, force, displacement,

electric field intensity, magnetic field intensity

etc

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DEFINATION

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DEFINATION

Electromagnetic (EM) Theory is essentially a

study of some particular fields.

A field is a function that specifies a particular

quantity everywhere in a region.

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DEFINATION

If the quantity is scalar, the field is scalar field.

Examples of scalar field : temperature distribution

in a building, sound intensity in a theater, electric

potential in a region, etc.

If the field is vector, the field is vector field.

Examples of vector field : gravitational force on a

body in space, the velocity of raindrops in the

atmosphere, Electric Field and Magnetic Field,

intensities,etc

Elements of Electromagnetics Fourth Edition

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UNIT VECTOR

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UNIT VECTOR

Thus we may write vector A as

A = A aA

In cartesian coordinates vector A may be

represented as

A = Ax ax +Ay ay + Az az

Elements of Electromagnetics Fourth Edition

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UNIT VECTOR

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UNIT VECTOR

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Figure 1.1 (a) Unit vectors ax, ay, and az, (b) components of A along ax, ay, and az.

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Vector addition

Two vectors A and B can be added together to

give vector C,

C=A+B

= ( Ax ax +Ay ay + Az az ) +

( Bx a x + B y a y + B z a z )

= (Ax + Bx ) ax + (Ay + By ) ay + (Az + Bz ) az

Elements of Electromagnetics Fourth Edition

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Figure 1.2 Vector addition C A B: (a) parallelogram rule, (b) head-to-tail rule.

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Vector subtraction

Vector subtraction is similarly carried out as

D = A B = A + (- B)

= (Ax - Bx ) ax + (Ay - By ) ay + (Az - Bz ) az

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Figure 1.3 Vector subtraction DAB: (a) parallelogram rule, (b) head-to-tail rule.

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The position vector rP (or radius vector) of point P

(x,y,z) is defined as the the directed distance from

the origin O to P,

rP = OP = xax +yay + zaz

The position vector of point P is useful in defining

its position in space.

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For example if P is at (3,4,5) in cartesian

coordinates then its position vector

rP = OP = 3ax +4ay + 5az

This is illustrated in Fig. 1.4

Elements of Electromagnetics Fourth Edition

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The distance vector is the displacement from

one point to another.

If P and Q are given by (xP, yP, zP ) and (xQ, yQ,

zQ ), the distance vector (or separation vector)

is,

rPQ = rQ - rP

= (xQ xP)ax + (yQ yP)ay + (zQ zP)az

Elements of Electromagnetics Fourth Edition

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Example 1

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Example 1

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Example 1

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Example 2

Points P and Q are located at (0,2,4) and (-3,1,5).

Calculate

a)The position vector P

b)The distance vector from P to Q

c)The distance between P and Q

d)A vector parallel to PQ with magnitude of 10

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Exercise 1

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Exercise 2

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Exercise 3

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VECTOR MULTIPLICATION

When two vectors A and B are multiplied, the

result is either a scalar or a vector depending on

how they are multiplied. Two types of vector

multiplication

Scalar (or dot ) product : AB

Vector (or cross ) product : A x B

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VECTOR MULTIPLICATION

Multiplication of three vectors A,B, and C can

result in either

Scalar triple product : A (B x C)

Vector triple product : A x (B x C)

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Dot Product

The dot product of two vectors A and B,

written as AB, is defined geometrically as the

product of the magnitude of A and B and the

cosine of the angle between them.

AB = AB cos AB

Where AB is the smaller angle between A and

B.

Elements of Electromagnetics Fourth Edition

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Dot Product

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Dot Product

The dot product obeys the following:

1.Commutative law;

AB = BA

2.Distributive law;

A (B + C) = AB + AC

3. AA = A2 = A2

Elements of Electromagnetics Fourth Edition

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Dot Product

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Cross Product

The cross product of two vectors A and B,

written as A x B , is a vector quantity whose

magnitude is the area of the parallelogram

formed by A and B , and is in the direction of

advance of a right handed screw as A is turned

into B.

A x B = AB sin AB an

Elements of Electromagnetics Fourth Edition

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Cross Product

where an is a unit vector normal to the plane

containing A and B. The direction of an is

taken as the direction of the right thumb when

the fingers of the right hand rotate from A to

B.

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Figure 1.7 The cross product of A and B is a vector with magnitude equal to the area of the parallelogram and direction, as indicated.

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Figure 1.8 Direction of A B and an using (a) the right-hand rule and (b) the right-handed-screw rule.

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Cross Product

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Cross Product

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Cross Product

3. It is distributive;

A x (B + C) = A x B + A x C

4. A x A = 0

Note:

ax x ay = az

ay x az = ax

az x ax = ay

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Cross product

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Figure 1.9 Cross product using cyclic permutation (a) Moving clockwise leads to positive results. (b) Moving counterclockwise leads to negative results.

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Given vector A, B, and C, we define the scalar

triple product as,

A (B x C) = B (C x A) = C (A x B)

The result is a scalar.

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For a vector A, B, and C, we define the vector

triple product as

A x (B x C) = B(A C) C(A B)

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Components of a vector

Given a vector A, we define the scalar

component AB of A along a vector B as,

AB = A cos AB =AaBcos AB

Or

AB = A aB

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Components of a vector

Note the vector component AB of A along B is

simply the scalar component multiplied by a

unit vector along B,

AB = ABaB = (A aB)aB

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Figure 1.10 Components of A along B: (a) scalar component AB, (b) vector component AB .

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Example 3

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Example 3

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Example 3

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Example 4

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Example 4

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Example 5

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Example 6

Show that points P1 (5,2,-4), P2 (1,1,2), and P3

(-3,0,8) all lie on a straight line. Determine the

shortest distance between the line and point P 4

(3,-1,0).

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Exercise 4

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Exercise 5

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Exercise 6

Consider a rigid body rotating with a constant

angular velocity radians per second about a fixed

axis through 0 as in figure below. Let r be the

distance vector from 0 to P, the position of a particle

in the body. The magnitude of the velocity u of the

body at P isu= d = r sin or u =

x r. If the rigid body is rotating at 3 rad/s about an

axis parallel to ax 2ay + 2az and passing through

point (2,-3,1), determine the velocity of the body at

(1,3,4)

Elements of Electromagnetics Fourth Edition

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