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DEFINITION

A quantity can be either a scalar or a vector.

A scalar is a quantity that has only magnitude.
Examples are time, mass, distance, temperature,
entropy, electric potential etc

Elements of Electromagnetics Fourth Edition

DEFINATION
A vector is a quantity that has both magnitude
and direction.
Examples are velocity, force, displacement,
electric field intensity, magnetic field intensity
etc

DEFINATION

Elements of Electromagnetics Fourth Edition

DEFINATION
Electromagnetic (EM) Theory is essentially a
study of some particular fields.
A field is a function that specifies a particular
quantity everywhere in a region.

Elements of Electromagnetics Fourth Edition

DEFINATION
If the quantity is scalar, the field is scalar field.
Examples of scalar field : temperature distribution
in a building, sound intensity in a theater, electric
potential in a region, etc.
If the field is vector, the field is vector field.
Examples of vector field : gravitational force on a
body in space, the velocity of raindrops in the
atmosphere, Electric Field and Magnetic Field,
intensities,etc
Elements of Electromagnetics Fourth Edition

UNIT VECTOR

Elements of Electromagnetics Fourth Edition

UNIT VECTOR
Thus we may write vector A as
A = A aA
In cartesian coordinates vector A may be
represented as
A = Ax ax +Ay ay + Az az
Elements of Electromagnetics Fourth Edition

UNIT VECTOR

UNIT VECTOR

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Figure 1.1 (a) Unit vectors ax, ay, and az, (b) components of A along ax, ay, and az.

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Two vectors A and B can be added together to
give vector C,
C=A+B
= ( Ax ax +Ay ay + Az az ) +
( Bx a x + B y a y + B z a z )
= (Ax + Bx ) ax + (Ay + By ) ay + (Az + Bz ) az
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Figure 1.2 Vector addition C A B: (a) parallelogram rule, (b) head-to-tail rule.

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Vector subtraction
Vector subtraction is similarly carried out as
D = A B = A + (- B)
= (Ax - Bx ) ax + (Ay - By ) ay + (Az - Bz ) az

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Figure 1.3 Vector subtraction DAB: (a) parallelogram rule, (b) head-to-tail rule.

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Position and distance vectors

The position vector rP (or radius vector) of point P
(x,y,z) is defined as the the directed distance from
the origin O to P,
rP = OP = xax +yay + zaz
The position vector of point P is useful in defining
its position in space.

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Position and distance vectors

For example if P is at (3,4,5) in cartesian
coordinates then its position vector
rP = OP = 3ax +4ay + 5az
This is illustrated in Fig. 1.4
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Position and distance vectors

The distance vector is the displacement from
one point to another.
If P and Q are given by (xP, yP, zP ) and (xQ, yQ,
zQ ), the distance vector (or separation vector)
is,
rPQ = rQ - rP
= (xQ xP)ax + (yQ yP)ay + (zQ zP)az
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Example 1

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Example 1

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Example 1

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Example 2
Points P and Q are located at (0,2,4) and (-3,1,5).
Calculate
a)The position vector P
b)The distance vector from P to Q
c)The distance between P and Q
d)A vector parallel to PQ with magnitude of 10

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Exercise 1

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Exercise 2

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Exercise 3

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VECTOR MULTIPLICATION
When two vectors A and B are multiplied, the
result is either a scalar or a vector depending on
how they are multiplied. Two types of vector
multiplication
Scalar (or dot ) product : AB
Vector (or cross ) product : A x B

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VECTOR MULTIPLICATION
Multiplication of three vectors A,B, and C can
result in either
Scalar triple product : A (B x C)
Vector triple product : A x (B x C)

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Dot Product
The dot product of two vectors A and B,
written as AB, is defined geometrically as the
product of the magnitude of A and B and the
cosine of the angle between them.
AB = AB cos AB
Where AB is the smaller angle between A and
B.
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Dot Product

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Dot Product
The dot product obeys the following:
1.Commutative law;
AB = BA
2.Distributive law;
A (B + C) = AB + AC
3. AA = A2 = A2
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Dot Product

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Cross Product
The cross product of two vectors A and B,
written as A x B , is a vector quantity whose
magnitude is the area of the parallelogram
formed by A and B , and is in the direction of
advance of a right handed screw as A is turned
into B.
A x B = AB sin AB an
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Cross Product
where an is a unit vector normal to the plane
containing A and B. The direction of an is
taken as the direction of the right thumb when
the fingers of the right hand rotate from A to
B.

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Figure 1.7 The cross product of A and B is a vector with magnitude equal to the area of the parallelogram and direction, as indicated.

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Figure 1.8 Direction of A B and an using (a) the right-hand rule and (b) the right-handed-screw rule.

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Cross Product

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Cross Product

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Cross Product
3. It is distributive;
A x (B + C) = A x B + A x C
4. A x A = 0
Note:

ax x ay = az
ay x az = ax
az x ax = ay

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Cross product

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Figure 1.9 Cross product using cyclic permutation (a) Moving clockwise leads to positive results. (b) Moving counterclockwise leads to negative results.

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Scalar Triple Product

Given vector A, B, and C, we define the scalar
triple product as,
A (B x C) = B (C x A) = C (A x B)
The result is a scalar.

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Vector Triple Product

For a vector A, B, and C, we define the vector
triple product as
A x (B x C) = B(A C) C(A B)

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Components of a vector
Given a vector A, we define the scalar
component AB of A along a vector B as,
AB = A cos AB =AaBcos AB
Or

AB = A aB

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Components of a vector
Note the vector component AB of A along B is
simply the scalar component multiplied by a
unit vector along B,
AB = ABaB = (A aB)aB

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Figure 1.10 Components of A along B: (a) scalar component AB, (b) vector component AB .

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Example 3

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Example 3

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Example 3

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Example 4

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Example 4

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Example 5

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Example 6
Show that points P1 (5,2,-4), P2 (1,1,2), and P3
(-3,0,8) all lie on a straight line. Determine the
shortest distance between the line and point P 4
(3,-1,0).

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Exercise 4

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Exercise 5

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Exercise 6
Consider a rigid body rotating with a constant
axis through 0 as in figure below. Let r be the
distance vector from 0 to P, the position of a particle
in the body. The magnitude of the velocity u of the
body at P isu= d = r sin or u =
x r. If the rigid body is rotating at 3 rad/s about an
axis parallel to ax 2ay + 2az and passing through
point (2,-3,1), determine the velocity of the body at
(1,3,4)
Elements of Electromagnetics Fourth Edition