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# DEFINITION

## A quantity can be either a scalar or a vector.

A scalar is a quantity that has only magnitude.
Examples are time, mass, distance, temperature,
entropy, electric potential etc

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DEFINATION
A vector is a quantity that has both magnitude
and direction.
Examples are velocity, force, displacement,
electric field intensity, magnetic field intensity
etc

DEFINATION

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DEFINATION
Electromagnetic (EM) Theory is essentially a
study of some particular fields.
A field is a function that specifies a particular
quantity everywhere in a region.

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DEFINATION
If the quantity is scalar, the field is scalar field.
Examples of scalar field : temperature distribution
in a building, sound intensity in a theater, electric
potential in a region, etc.
If the field is vector, the field is vector field.
Examples of vector field : gravitational force on a
body in space, the velocity of raindrops in the
atmosphere, Electric Field and Magnetic Field,
intensities,etc
Elements of Electromagnetics Fourth Edition

UNIT VECTOR

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UNIT VECTOR
Thus we may write vector A as
A = A aA
In cartesian coordinates vector A may be
represented as
A = Ax ax +Ay ay + Az az
Elements of Electromagnetics Fourth Edition

UNIT VECTOR

UNIT VECTOR

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Figure 1.1 (a) Unit vectors ax, ay, and az, (b) components of A along ax, ay, and az.

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Two vectors A and B can be added together to
give vector C,
C=A+B
= ( Ax ax +Ay ay + Az az ) +
( Bx a x + B y a y + B z a z )
= (Ax + Bx ) ax + (Ay + By ) ay + (Az + Bz ) az
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Figure 1.2 Vector addition C A B: (a) parallelogram rule, (b) head-to-tail rule.

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Vector subtraction
Vector subtraction is similarly carried out as
D = A B = A + (- B)
= (Ax - Bx ) ax + (Ay - By ) ay + (Az - Bz ) az

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Figure 1.3 Vector subtraction DAB: (a) parallelogram rule, (b) head-to-tail rule.

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## Position and distance vectors

The position vector rP (or radius vector) of point P
(x,y,z) is defined as the the directed distance from
the origin O to P,
rP = OP = xax +yay + zaz
The position vector of point P is useful in defining
its position in space.

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## Position and distance vectors

For example if P is at (3,4,5) in cartesian
coordinates then its position vector
rP = OP = 3ax +4ay + 5az
This is illustrated in Fig. 1.4
Elements of Electromagnetics Fourth Edition

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## Position and distance vectors

The distance vector is the displacement from
one point to another.
If P and Q are given by (xP, yP, zP ) and (xQ, yQ,
zQ ), the distance vector (or separation vector)
is,
rPQ = rQ - rP
= (xQ xP)ax + (yQ yP)ay + (zQ zP)az
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Example 1

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Example 1

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Example 1

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Example 2
Points P and Q are located at (0,2,4) and (-3,1,5).
Calculate
a)The position vector P
b)The distance vector from P to Q
c)The distance between P and Q
d)A vector parallel to PQ with magnitude of 10

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Exercise 1

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Exercise 2

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Exercise 3

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VECTOR MULTIPLICATION
When two vectors A and B are multiplied, the
result is either a scalar or a vector depending on
how they are multiplied. Two types of vector
multiplication
Scalar (or dot ) product : AB
Vector (or cross ) product : A x B

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VECTOR MULTIPLICATION
Multiplication of three vectors A,B, and C can
result in either
Scalar triple product : A (B x C)
Vector triple product : A x (B x C)

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Dot Product
The dot product of two vectors A and B,
written as AB, is defined geometrically as the
product of the magnitude of A and B and the
cosine of the angle between them.
AB = AB cos AB
Where AB is the smaller angle between A and
B.
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Dot Product

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Dot Product
The dot product obeys the following:
1.Commutative law;
AB = BA
2.Distributive law;
A (B + C) = AB + AC
3. AA = A2 = A2
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Dot Product

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Cross Product
The cross product of two vectors A and B,
written as A x B , is a vector quantity whose
magnitude is the area of the parallelogram
formed by A and B , and is in the direction of
advance of a right handed screw as A is turned
into B.
A x B = AB sin AB an
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Cross Product
where an is a unit vector normal to the plane
containing A and B. The direction of an is
taken as the direction of the right thumb when
the fingers of the right hand rotate from A to
B.

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Figure 1.7 The cross product of A and B is a vector with magnitude equal to the area of the parallelogram and direction, as indicated.

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Figure 1.8 Direction of A B and an using (a) the right-hand rule and (b) the right-handed-screw rule.

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Cross Product

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Cross Product

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Cross Product
3. It is distributive;
A x (B + C) = A x B + A x C
4. A x A = 0
Note:

ax x ay = az
ay x az = ax
az x ax = ay

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Cross product

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Figure 1.9 Cross product using cyclic permutation (a) Moving clockwise leads to positive results. (b) Moving counterclockwise leads to negative results.

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## Scalar Triple Product

Given vector A, B, and C, we define the scalar
triple product as,
A (B x C) = B (C x A) = C (A x B)
The result is a scalar.

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## Vector Triple Product

For a vector A, B, and C, we define the vector
triple product as
A x (B x C) = B(A C) C(A B)

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Components of a vector
Given a vector A, we define the scalar
component AB of A along a vector B as,
AB = A cos AB =AaBcos AB
Or

AB = A aB

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Components of a vector
Note the vector component AB of A along B is
simply the scalar component multiplied by a
unit vector along B,
AB = ABaB = (A aB)aB

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Figure 1.10 Components of A along B: (a) scalar component AB, (b) vector component AB .

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Example 3

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Example 3

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Example 3

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Example 4

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Example 4

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Example 5

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Example 6
Show that points P1 (5,2,-4), P2 (1,1,2), and P3
(-3,0,8) all lie on a straight line. Determine the
shortest distance between the line and point P 4
(3,-1,0).

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Exercise 4

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Exercise 5

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Exercise 6
Consider a rigid body rotating with a constant
axis through 0 as in figure below. Let r be the
distance vector from 0 to P, the position of a particle
in the body. The magnitude of the velocity u of the
body at P isu= d = r sin or u =
x r. If the rigid body is rotating at 3 rad/s about an
axis parallel to ax 2ay + 2az and passing through
point (2,-3,1), determine the velocity of the body at
(1,3,4)
Elements of Electromagnetics Fourth Edition

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