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Heat Transfer in I.C.

Engines

BY
SATYAM KUMAR UPADHYAY
AMITY SCHOOL OF SCINCE & TECHNOLOG
AMITY UNIVERSITY
NOIDA, UTTAR PRADESH
INDIA
upadhyay.satyam.satyam@gmail.com

Introduction
The

internal combustion engine is a rich source of examples


of almost every conceivable type of heat transfer. There are
a wide range of temperatures and heat fluxes in the various
components of the internal combustion engine. Internal
combustion engines come in many sizes, from small model
airplane engines with a 0.25 " (6 mm) bore and stroke to
large stationary engines with a 12" (300 mm)
About 25 % of the air/fuel mixture energy is converted to
work, and the remaining 75% must be transferred from the
engine to the environment. The heat transfer paths are many,
and include many different modes of heat transfer.
In this module, we will discuss the heat transfer processes in
the engine components, then consider the engine parameters
and variables which affect the heat transfer processes.

Engine Heat Transfer


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Impact of heat transfer on engine


operation
Heat transfer environment
Energy flow in an engine
Component temperature and heat flow
Engine heat transfer
(i) Fundamentals
(ii)Spark-ignition engine heat
transfer
(iii) Diesel engine heat transfer

Engine Heat Transfer-cont.


Heat

transfer is a parasitic
process that contributes to a loss
in fuel conversion efficiency.
The process is a surface effect
Relative importance reduces
with:
Larger engine displacement
Higher load

Introduction
Internal

combustion engines use heat to


convert the energy of fuel to power.
Engine temperature is not consistent
throughout the cycle.
Not all of the fuel energy is converted to power.
Excess heat must be removed from the engine.
In engines, heat is moved to the atmosphere
by fluidswater and air.
If excess heat is not removed, engine
components fail due to excessive temperature.
Heat moves from areas of high temperature to
areas of low temperature.

Introduction-cont.
Additional

heat is also generated by


friction between the moving parts.
This heat must also be removed.
When fuel is oxidized (burned) heat is
produced.
Only approximately 30% of the energy
released is converted into useful work.
The remaining (70%) must be
removed from the engine to prevent
the parts from failure/seizure/melting.

Heat Transfer
Peak

burned gas temperature2500 K


Combustion period heat fluxes may reach to 10 MW/m2,
whereas at the other parts of the cycle it is essentially
zero.
Maximum metal temperature fo rthe inside of the
combustion chamber is much lower values due to
Cracking on materials (cast iron 400C, aluminum
alloys 400C
Prevent deterioration of lubrication oil (keep below
180C)
Spark plugs and valves must be kept cool to avoid knock
and preignition problems
Should maintain the combustion temperature
Effects for emissions
Heat transfer to inlet manifold reduces the airflow

Energy Flows in Engines


There

are three overall paths for


energy flow: shaft work, coolant,
and exhaust. They are
approximately equal, each about
1/3 of the energy of the incoming
fuel/air mixture.
.

Energy Flows in Enginescont.


Why

is heat transfer in engines


important ?
There is a need to keep the temperatures of
two critical areas below material design
limits. These areas are the piston crown and
the exhaust valve
Emission levels and octane requirements
are a function of engine temperature.

Energy Flows in Engines-cont.

How do we determine engine heat transfer ?

The calculation of engine heat transfer is difficult, due to


the periodic air and fuel flow and the complex geometry of
the engine. We rely primarily on experimental results.
With recent advances in computational fluid dynamics,
computation of engine heat transfer is becoming more
possible.
What are typical heat transfer rates in engines ?
The majority of engines produced are automotive six
cylinder engines, with about a 4" (100 mm) piston
diameter (bore) and 4" (100mm) piston stroke, producing
about 100 hp (75 kW). Since the heat transfer to the
coolant and the heat convected from the exhaust are
about equal to the power produced, the heat transfer to
the coolant and to the exhaust will also be about 75 kW.
For this typical automotive engine, the total cylinder
volume or displacement is typically about 300 cubic
inches (0.005 m3), and the total cylinder area is about 0.2

Engine Heat Transfer: Impact


Efficiency

and Power: Heat transfer in the inlet


decrease volumetric efficiency. In the cylinder, heat
losses to the wall is a loss of availability.

Exhaust

temperature: Heat losses to exhaust


influence the turbocharger performance. In- cylinder
and exhaust system heat transfer has impact on
catalyst light up.

Friction:

Heat transfer governs liner, piston/ ring,


and oil temperatures. It also affects piston and bore
distortion. All of these effects influence friction.
Thermal loading determined fan, oil and water cooler
capacities and pumping power.

Component

design: The operating temperatures of

Engine Heat Transfer: Impactcont.


Mixture

preparation in SI engines: Heat


transfer to the fuel significantly affect fuel
evaporation and cold start calibration
Cold start of diesel engines: The
compression ratio of diesel engines are often
governed by cold start requirement
SI engine octane requirement: Heat transfer
influences inlet mixture temperature, chamber,
cylinder head, liner, piston and valve
temperatures, and therefore end-gas
temperatures, which affect knock. Heat transfer
also affects build up of in-cylinder deposit which
affects knock.

Engine heat transfer


environment
Gas temperature:
~300 3000K
Heat

flux to wall: Q/A <0 (during intake) to 10 MW/m

Materials

limit:

Cast iron ~ 400C


Aluminium ~ 300C
Liner (oil film) ~200C
Hottest

components

Spark plug > Exhaust valve > Piston crown > Head
Liner is relatively cool because of limited exposure to
Source

Hot burned gas


Radiation from particles in diesel engines

burned gas

Heat transfer process in


engines
Areas

where heat transfer is important

Intake system: manifold, port, valves

In-cylinder: cylinder head, piston, valves, liner


Exhaust system: valves, port, manifold, exhaust pipe
Coolant system: head, block, radiator
Oil system: head, piston, crank, oil cooler, sump

Information

of interest

Heat transfer per unit time (rate)


Heat transfer per cycle (often normalized by fuel heatingvalue)
Variation with time and location of heat flux (heat
transfer
rate per unit area)

Heat Transfer Types


The

three heat transfer


mechanisms are:
Conduction
Convection
Radiation

Conduction
Conduction

Conduction heat transfer is energy transport due to molecular


motion and interaction. Conduction heat transfer through solids is
due to molecular vibration. Fourier determined that Q/A, the heat
transfer per unit area (W/m2) is proportional to the temperature
gradient dT/dx. The constant of proportionality is called the
material thermal conductivity k
Fouriers

equation :

The

thermal conductivity k depends on the material, for example,


the various materials used in engines have the following thermal
conductivities (W/m K):
Copper = 400, Aluminium = 240, Cast Iron = 80, Water = 0.6, Air=0.026
The

thermal conductivity also depends somewhat on the temperature of the material.

Fig: Conduction through Piston Cylinder Wall

Convection
Convection

heat transfer is energy transport due to bulk fluid


motion. Convection heat transfer through gases and liquids from
a solid boundary results from the fluid motion along the surface.

Newton

determined that the heat transfer/area, Q/A, is


proportional to the fluid solid temperature difference (Ts-Tf). The
temperature difference usually occurs across a thin layer of fluid
adjacent to the solid surface. This thin fluid layer is called a
boundary layer. The constant of proportionality is called the heat
transfer coefficient, h.

Newton's
The

Equation:

heat transfer coefficient depends on the type of fluid and the


fluid velocity. The heat flux, depending on the area of interest, is
the local or area averaged.

Convection-cont.
For

a cylinder block
with a forced
convection h of 1000,
surface temperature
of 100C , and a
coolant temperature
of 80C, the local
heat transfer rate is :

Radiation
Radiation

heat transfer is energy transport due to


emission of electromagnetic waves or photons from a
surface or volume. The radiation does not require a
heat transfer medium, and can occur in a vacuum.
The heat transfer by radiation is proportional to the
fourth power of the absolute material temperature.
The proportionality constantsis the Stefan-Boltzman
constant equal to 5.67 x 10-8W/mK4. The radiation
heat transfer also depends on the material properties
represented by , the emissivity of the material.

Radiation-cont.
For

a surface with an emissivity of (Emissivity)= 0.8


and T = 373 K (100C) and Stefan Boltzman Constant
(5.67x10-8 W/m2-K4), then the radiation heat transfer is:

For

moderate (less than 100C) temperature


differences, it should be noted that the radiation and
natural convection heat transfer are about the same.

Combustion Chamber Heat


Transfer