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LANGUAGE

ASSESSMENT
TSL3112
LECTURE 2

Role and Purposes of Assessment


in Teaching and Learning

LEARNING OUTCOMES:
Explain the reasons/purposes of assessment
Differentiate between assessment for learning
and assessment of learning
Distinguish different types of tests used in the
classroom and compare their respective
functions
Appraise the different testing formats available
and their suitability for testing various skills
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Purposes of Assessment

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What is the purpose of assessment?


... to gather evidence of learning.

4 Roles of assessment in
classroom
1. Preliminary Evaluations / Placement Tests:
a. occur in the first day of school
b. based on students skills, attitude and physical
characteristics
c. spontaneous informal observation and oral
questions
b. as a basis of expectations thoroughout the year

Role of assessment in
classroom
2. Diagnostic Evaluations:
a. occur before and during instruction
b. concerned with skills
c. achievement of instructional objectives
d. during instruction to establish underlying causes
for
a students failing to learn a skill
e. before instruction to anticipate conditions that will
negatively affect learning
f. informal assessment mostly

Role of assessment in
classroom
3. Formative Evaluations:
a. to establish whether students have achieved
mastery
b. to determine the adjustments that need to be
made
c. based on continuous informal assessments
d. during instruction listening to what students
say, using
oral questions to probe, watching students
behaviour
e. quizzes, homework
f. feedback to reinforce learning, correct learning

Role of assessment in
classroom
4. Summative Evaluations:
a. occurs at the conclusion of instruction (unit,
month,
semester, programme) finals, UPSR, SPM
b. to certify students achievement, assign grades
c. to group students (streaming)
d. help determine changes in teaching procedure
for
the following year
e. formal assessments

Relationship between Instruction and Assessment

Learning
Goals
and
Objective
s

Preinstructio
n
Assessme
nt

Specific
Learnin
g
Targets

Evidenc
e of
Learning

Interacti
ve
Instructi
on

Postinstruction
Assessme
nt

Ongoing
Assessme
nt

McMillan, J. (2001). Classroom Assessment. Boston: Allyn and Bacon

Many different types of


evidence of learning
are collected. These are all considered
forms of assessment:

Classroom quizzes
Classroom tests
Performance tasks
Projects
Teacher observations
Portfolios of student work
Large-scale tests (standardized tests)
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Different audiences have different


needs for information about learning.

Students

Teachers

Parents

School
Districts

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Different audiences have different


needs for information about learning.
Students need feedback on their performance so
they know where they are doing well and where
they need to place additional effort.
Teachers need information about their students
understanding in order to make good decisions
about what and how they teach.
Parents need information about their childrens
learning progress so they know the areas where
their children need additional support.
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School districts need information about


students learning so they can know where
additional support for teachers and students
may be needed.
Both State and Federal Departments of
Education need to know about student
performance in order to assess the educational
status of students in the state/nation and
know where additional funding and or
programs may be needed to help make
improvements.
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A few thoughts about


Assessment -- What Type?
Assessment OF Learning? or
Assessment FOR Learning?

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Purposes of Assessment

Assessment for learning (formative or


classroom-based assessment) is different
from assessment of learning (summative
assessment)
An important aspect of assessment for
learning is the formative use of
summative data.

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Assessment OF Learning
= Summative

Involves judging pupils' performance against


national standards (level descriptions).
Teachers often make these judgments at the end
of a unit of work, year or key stage.
Test results also describe pupils performance in
terms of levels.
Carried out for the purposes of grading and
reporting
Time Perspective: Past -> Present
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Assessment FOR Learning =


Formative
While it is not the only purpose, assessment for
learning is one of the most important purposes of
assessment.
Takes place all the time throughout the learning
process
Provides continuous feedback to students and
teachers on progress towards achieving standards.
Allows students and teachers to adjust their
performance as needed
Time Perspective: Present -> Future
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Principles of Assessment FOR Learning


Definition:
Assessment for Learning is the process of
seeking and interpreting evidence for use by
learners and their teachers to decide where
the learners are in their learning, where they
need to go and how best to get there.

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When the cook tastes the


soup, thats formative;
when the guests taste the
soup, thats summative.
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Proficiency Tests

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Achievement Tests
Related directly to classroom lessons, units
or even a total curriculum
Limited to particular material addressed in a
curriculum within a particular time frame,
offered after a course has focused on the
objectives in question,
The primary role determine whether course
objectives have been met; appropriate
knowledge and skills acquired by the end of
the course instruction.
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Achievement Tests
Often summative administered
at the of a unit or term
Play an important formative role
Effective achievement testswashback quality of a learners
performance
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Specifications for an
achievement test (Brown, 2004)
Determined by :
The objectives of the lesson, unit or course
being assessed
The relative importance( or weight) assigned
to each objective
The tasks employed in classroom lessons
Practicality issues e.g. time frame for the test
The extent to which the test structure lends
itself to formative washback
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Diagnostic Tests

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Difference between a diagnostic


and a general achievement test

Diagnostic
Elicit information on what
students need to work on
in the future
Typically offer more
detailed subcategorized
information on the
learner.
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General achievement

Analyse the extent to


which Ss have acquired
language features that
have already been
taught.

Aptitude Tests
To predict a persons future success in learning a
(any) foreign language
Taken before actual learning
Standardized aptitude tests (US) i.e.
Modern Language Aptitude Test (MLAT) &
Pimsleur Language Aptitude Battery (PLAB)
Standardized AT seldom used today insteadprovide learners with information abt their
preferred styles and their potential strengths and
overcoming their weaknesses
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Placement Test

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Basic questions

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Tutorial #2
Group work:
Discuss and present the various
types of tests and assessment
tasks students have experienced.
Discuss the extent tests or
assessment tasks serve their
purpose.
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